Species

Beilschmiedia tawa

Etymology

tawa: From a Proto Eastern Malayan-Polynesian word for Beilschmiedia tawa, which is thought to have originally come from New Guinea. The modern Maori word tawa 'to be purple' is probably derived from the purple fruits of this tree

Common Name(s)

Tawa

Current Conservation Status

2012 - Not Threatened

Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2012 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2009 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, Paul D. Champion, Shannel P. Courtney, Peter B. Heenan, John W. Barkla, Ewen K. Cameron, David A. Norton and Rodney A. Hitchmough. File size: 792KB

Previous Conservation Status

2009 - Not Threatened
2004 - Not Threatened

Authority

Beilschmiedia tawa (A.Cunn.) Benth. et Hook.f. ex Kirk

Family

Lauraceae

Brief Description

Common canopy tree with a tall dark single trunk. Leaves thin, narrow, gradually tapering to base and the pointed tip, yellowish when young, when mature drooping, glossy, pale underneath. Flowers in yellowish sprays. Fruit very large, dark purple, glossy, containing a large large elliptical seed.

Flora Category

Vascular - Native

NVS Species Code

BEITAW

The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.

Structural Class

Dicotyledonous Trees & Shrubs

Synonyms

Laurus tawa A.Cunn., Nesodaphne tawa (A.Cunn.) Hook.f., Laurus victoriana Colenso, Beilschmiedia tawaroa A.E.Wright

Distribution

Endemic. Common throughout the North Island. In the South Island common from Cape Farewell east through the Marlborough Sounds. Extending south of their only in the east where it almost reaches Kaikoura (the southern limit is just north of the main town).

Habitat

Major canopy dominant in the lowland and lower montane forests of the North Island and northern South island. May form pure stands but usually occurs in close association with podocarps such as rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum).

Features

Evergreen tree up to 35 m tall. Trunk straight, 1.2-2 m diam., with buttressed base. Bark smooth, dark brown. Branches erect to spreading, slender to moderately robust. Young branchlets, leaves and inflorescences finely pubescent, hairs simple, pale golden. Foliage opposite to sub-opposite, simple, somewhat leathery when mature. Petioles (6-)8(-12) mm. Leaves (30-)40-80(-95) x (8-)11-16(-40) mm, narrowly to broadly lanceolate sometimes elliptic, yellow-green to green, glabrous when mature, undersides glaucous. margins entire, and undulate, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescences, an erect, axillary panicle up to 100 mm long. Flowers sexually perfect, 2-4 mm diam, pale green, perianth cleft into 6 segments, ovate-oblong, stamens 12. Fruit a pendulous, ellipsoid to ovoid drupe (20-)30(-38) x (9-)12(-18) mm, 1-seeded, pericarp fleshy, dark purple-black when ripe, glaucous or shiny.

Similar Taxa

A very distinct species. The green to greenish-yellow, narrow, entire, willow-like leaves with their glaucous undersides, and large plum-like, dark purple, pendulous drupes serve to immediately distinguish this from all other indigenous trees and shrubs. Some northern and northern offshore island populations differ (in some cases markedly) by their much broader, sometimes slightly bullate dark-green leaves.

Flowering

(October-) January (-May)

Flower Colours

Green

Fruiting

(December-) January (-March)

Propagation Technique

Easy from fresh seed. Better germination is achieved if the flesh surrounding the seed is cleaned off.

Threats

Not Threatened

Chromosome No.

2n=24

Endemic Taxon

Yes

Endemic Genus

No

Endemic Family

No

Life Cycle and Dispersal

Fleshy drupes are dispersed by frugivory (Thorsen et al., 2009).


Where To Buy

Sold by a number of mainline and specialist native plant nurseries.

Taxonomic notes

Beilschmiedea tawaroa A.E. Wright described by Wright (1984), is not upheld here because it is not ecologically distinct, there is gradation between these large-leaved variants and normal tawa (B. tawa), and because aside from leaf width there are no other consistent distinguishing characters (de Lange & Cameron 1999). Plants with B. tawaroa characters - as defined by Wright (1984) have now been found as far south as Mt Taranaki and Mahia Peninsula.

Etymology notes

Tawa is thought to have been domesticated in New Guinea and spread with Austroneasian explorers. The name 'tawa' is a Proto Eastern Malayan-Polynesian and the modern Maori word tawa 'to be purple' is probably derived from the purple fruits of this tree. There is much more information about the domestication and uses of this species on the website Te Mara Reo - The Language Garden.

Attribution

Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange 12 February 2004. Description adapted from Allan (1961) and Wright (1984).

References and further reading

Allan, H.H. 1961: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. I, Wellington, Government Printer.

de Lange, P.J.; Cameron, E.K. 1999: The vascular flora of Aorangi Island, Poor Knights Islands, northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 433-468

Moorfield, J. C. 2005: Te aka : Māori-English, English-Māori dictionary and index. Pearson Longman:  Auckland

Landcare Research. Ngā Tipu Whakaoranga - Māori Plant Use Database. http://maoriplantuse.landcareresearch.co.nz

Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 2009 Vol. 11 No. 4 pp. 285-309.

Wright, A. E. 1984: Beilschmiedia Nees (Lauraceae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 22: 109-125.

 

This page last updated on 25 Sep 2015