Species

Gingidia montana

Etymology

Gingidia: a Syrian carrot
montana: From the Latin mons 'mountain', meaning growing on mountains

Common Name(s)

mountain aniseed, New Zealand aniseed

Current Conservation Status

2012 - Not Threatened

Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2012 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2009 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, Paul D. Champion, Shannel P. Courtney, Peter B. Heenan, John W. Barkla, Ewen K. Cameron, David A. Norton and Rodney A. Hitchmough. File size: 792KB

Previous Conservation Status

2009 - Not Threatened
2004 - Not Threatened

Authority

Gingidia montana (J.R.Forst. et G.Forst.) J.W.Dawson

Family

Apiaceae

Flora Category

Vascular - Native

NVS Species Code

GINMON

The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.

Structural Class

Dicotyledonous Herbs other than Composites

Synonyms

Gingidium montanum J.R.Forst. et G.Forst., Ligusticum gingidium G.Forst., Anisotome gingidium Hook.f., Angelica gingidium Hook.f., Angelica montana (J.R.Forst. et G.Forst.) Cockayne

Distribution

Endemic. New Zealand: North and South Islands. In the North Island now extremely scarce but formerly said to have occurred from about Kawhia and the southern Hawkes Bay south to the Wairarapa. It is rarely seen now in this area. In the South Island widespread throughout the island.

Habitat

Lowland to subalpine (upto 1300 m a.s.l.). Formerly widespread in open grassland, shrubland and along river banks now largely confined to cliffs, rock outcrops and seepages above roadsides - in places largely free from or completely free of browsing animals.

Features

Stout to somewhat laxly erect, non-rhizomatous, dark green, glaucescent, perennial herb. Bases usually bearing numerous leaf remnants, sometimes bare. Petioles 70-380 x 2.5-6.0 mm, fleshy, glaucescent; sheaths 30-95 x 7-20 mm. Leaves once pinnate, coriaceous to sub-fleshy, 150-800 x 30-150 mm, upper surface dark green, glaucescent, undersides usually paler, glaucous; leaflets 5-10 pairs, 15-80 x 15-65 mm, sessile, ovate-oblong to rhomboid, acute to obtuse, very rarely incised (incisions cut almost to midvein), stomata restricted to lower surface, margins serrate or crenate. Inflorescences 250-800 mm long with axes 35-80 mm in diameter; compound umbels 2-4 per inflorescence; simple umbels 5-25 per compound umbel; bracts free lanceolate, subacute to obtuse; flowers 15-30 per simple umbel; styles 1.5-3.5 mm long. Mericarps (excluding style) 4-8 mm long, dull or semi-glossy, finely bullate, especially on wings, dark brown, dark yellow, brown sometimes tinged purple, vittae dark red-brown or dark purple-brown; ovate to ovate-elliptic or broadly ovate; apex narrowed to 2-3 ovate-triangular calyx teeth and thin, often recruved style remnant; surface broad convex with 5 ribs, the 2 commissural broadly and more or less evenly winged, or with wings broadening toward base.

Similar Taxa

Easily distinguished from all the other New Zealand species of Gingidia (except G. grisea) by the stout erect habit, and larger leaves (up to 900 mm long) and leaflets (up to 80 mm long). In the past G. grisea has been confused with G. montana. Gingidia grisea differs from G. montana by the distinctive uniformly grey-green leaves, dense glaucous bloom on both leaf surfaces, and by the secondary bracts which are broad-elliptic and long-acuminate rather than lanceolate, subacute to obtuse. Unlike G. montana the inflorescences are often hidden within the rosette leaves, particularly so with female specimens. Preliminary analyses using rDNA ITS sequences suggest that G. grisea is more closely allied to G. trifoliolatum than it is to G. montana.

Flowering

August - May

Flower Colours

Brown,Yellow

Fruiting

October - June

Propagation Technique

Easily grown. Probably the most widely grown and easily cultivated species. It tolerates humidity and does well in full sun or shade, though it prefers a fertile, well drained, mosit soil.

Threats

Not Threatened. However, it is now extinct over most of its North Island range and it has declined from much of the South Island. Being highly palatable it is now often confined to inaccessible sites or locations free from browsing animals. This species may well yet qualify as Declining.

Chromosome No.

2n = 22

Endemic Taxon

Yes

Endemic Genus

No

Endemic Family

No

Life Cycle and Dispersal

Winged mericarps are dispersed by wind (Thorsen et al., 2009).

Taxonomic notes

Heenan et al. (2013) have shown that Gingidia montana is endemic to New Zealand. Australian plants referred to this species have been segregated from it as a new endemic G. rupicola I.Telford et. J.J.Bruhl. In New Zealand, two new species G. amphistoma Heenan and G. haematitica Heenan have also been segregated from G. montana.

References and further reading

Heenan, P.B.; Telford, I.R.H.; Bruhl, J.J. Three new species of Gingidia (Apiaceae: Apioideae) from Australia and New Zealand. Australian Systematic Botany 26: 196-209

Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309

This page last updated on 27 Sep 2014