Species

Myrsine oliveri

Etymology

Myrsine: myrrh

Current Conservation Status

2012 - At Risk - Naturally Uncommon

Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2012 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2009 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, Paul D. Champion, Shannel P. Courtney, Peter B. Heenan, John W. Barkla, Ewen K. Cameron, David A. Norton and Rodney A. Hitchmough. File size: 792KB

Previous Conservation Status

2009 - At Risk - Naturally Uncommon
2004 - Range Restricted

Qualifiers

2012 - CD, IE
2009 - OL, IE

Authority

Myrsine oliveri Allan

Family

Primulaceae

Brief Description

Bushy shrub with yellowish green or dark green wavy leaves that sometimes have teeth along the upper edge and inhabiting the Three Kings Islands. Leaves 5-6.5cm long by 3-4cm wide. Fruit 5-7mm wide, wider than deep.

Flora Category

Vascular - Native

NVS Species Code

MYROLI

The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.

Structural Class

Dicotyledonous Trees & Shrubs

Synonyms

Suttonia dentata W.R.B.Oliv., Rapanea dentata (W.R.B.Oliv.) W.R.B.Oliv.

Distribution

Endemic to the Three Kings Islands, where it is known from Manawa Tawhi (Great Island), South West and West Islands.

Habitat

Coastal forest and shrubland.

Features

Shrub or (rarely) a small gynodioecious tree up to 5m tall. Trunk 0.1-0.15 m dbh; usually solitary rarely multi-trunked or branching from near base, root suckers absent; epicormic growth infrequent; bark smooth, firm (not flaking), dark brown to red-brown or grey-brown, usually clean of lichens and bryophyte growth. Branches upright to shortly spreading, flexible, sparsely lenticellate; branchlets leafy, flexible, initially wine-red or pink, finely pubescent, maturing red-brown and glabrous. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, glabrous except for midrib and leaf margin which at least initially is finely pubescent, adaxially glossy dark green, yellow-green to green tinged pink (rarely sparingly spotted with red), abaxially similar but paler, oil glands numerous, minute (scarcely evident) colourless or flushed pink; midrib light green or yellow-green, slightly raised adaxially, prominently so abaxially, venation evident in fresh and dried material; petioles 5-10 mm long, stout, somewhat fleshy when fresh, dark pink, maroon or purple-black. Lamina (30-)50-65(-100) × (15-)30-40(-55) mm, obovate, elliptic to broadly cuneiform, apex rounded (if so then usually weakly emarginate) or subacute, base cuneately narrowed or attenuate; margins distinctly thickened, often slightly recurved, entire or with upper third of lamina irregularly dentate (juvenile leaves similar but smaller and with entire length of lamina margin regularly dentate). Inflorescence in densely 3-5(-8)-flowered, axillary, cymose fascicles (rarely solitary). Flowers pale yellow flushed with pink, sometimes spotted red, pedicels of flowers 1.8-2.2(-3.0) mm long, pinkish green, stout, glabrous, elongating slightly at fruiting. Pistillate flowers: calyx 1.6-2.0 mm, tube 0.5-0.8 mm, lobes (4-)5, erecto-patent,0.6-0.9 x 0.2-0.5 mm, deltoid, margins finely ciliolate, cilia pinkish; corolla 2.4-3.0 mm, tube 0.4-0.6 mm,lobes 4, erecto-patent to spreading (if spreading then with apices strongly decurved at anthesis), 2.3-3.0 x 1.3-1.4 mm, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, margins finely ciliolate, cilia pinkish, apex rounded or obtuse. Antherodes malformed, 0.45-5.8 x 0.3-0.4 mm, apiculus recurved, pollen absent. Ovary 2.0 x 2.4 mm long, ellipsoid. Stigma subsessile to sessile, 2.2-2.8 mm diameter, capitate, ± globular. Staminate flowers: calyx 1.8-2.2 mm, tube 0.65-0.8 mm, lobes 4,erecto-patent, 0.8-1.1 x 0.4-0.6 mm, deltoid, margins finely ciliolate, cilia pinkish; corolla 2.8-3.6 mm, tube 0.45-0.8 mm,lobes (4-)5, spreading (with apices strong decurved at anthesis), 2.6-3.8 x 1.6-1.9 mm, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, margins fimbriate, pinkish, apex rounded or obtuse. Stamens (4-)5, filaments 2.2-2.8 x 0.22-0.30 mm, pinkish, stamens yellow, apiculus recurved. Ovary absent or rudimentary, malformed. Bisexual flowers: calyx 1.7-2.0 mm, tube 0.34-0.7 mm, lobes 5, erecto-patent, 0.6-0.9 x 0.2-0.5 mm, deltoid, margins fimbriate, pinkish; corolla 2.42-2.8 mm, tube 0.4-0.6 mm,lobes 5, spreading (with apices strongly decurved at anthesis), 2.3-2.9 x 1.2-1.31 mm, elliptic, margins fimbriate,cilia pinkish, apex rounded or obtuse. Stamens (4-)5, filaments 2.2-2.8 x 0.22-0.30 mm, pinkish, stamens yellow, apiculus recurved. Ovary 2.0 x 2.4 mm long, ellipsoid. Stigma subsessile to sessile, 2.2-2.8 mm diameter, capitate, ± globular. Drupe 1-seeded, 5.0-8.1 mm diameter, subturbinate-globose to globose, violet to purple-black, sometimes white spotted. Endocarp 3.0-4.0 × 5.0-6.0 mm, subturbinate-globose to globose, pale brown, surface irregular with pale longitudinal veins.

Similar Taxa

Myrsine oliveri is readily distinguished from the only other Myrsine present on the Three Kings, M. australis by its very much larger obovate, elliptic to broadly cuneiform, glossy dark green, yellow-green to green tinged pink (rarely sparingly spotted with red) leaves. Myrsine oliveri is perhaps most similar to M. kermadecensis, from which it differs by its more consistently toothed, and more highly coloured leaves, and by floral and fruit characters.

Flowering

July - September

Flower Colours

Red / Pink,Yellow

Fruiting

October - May

Propagation Technique

Easily grown from fresh seed. Can be grown from hardwood cuttings. Frost sensitive but otherwise rather hardy. In cultivation usually rather rapidly growing. The foliage is rather attractively coloured.

Threats

Once believed close to extinction this species has made a spectacular recovery and is now abundant on Manawa Tahwi (Great Island), and it is actively spreading to the other adjacent islands. It is listed only because it occupies a small geographic area.

Chromosome No.

2n = 46

Endemic Taxon

Yes

Endemic Genus

No

Endemic Family

No

Where To Buy

Not commercially available.

Attribution

Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange 11 February 2011. Original description by P.J. de Lange.

This page last updated on 2 Jan 2014