Species

Metrosideros carminea

Etymology

Metrosideros: iron heart
carminea: Carmine or red-coloured

Common Name(s)

Crimson rata, Carmine rata

Current Conservation Status

2012 - Not Threatened

Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2012 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2009 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, Paul D. Champion, Shannel P. Courtney, Peter B. Heenan, John W. Barkla, Ewen K. Cameron, David A. Norton and Rodney A. Hitchmough. File size: 792KB

Previous Conservation Status

2009 - Not Threatened
2004 - Not Threatened

Authority

Metrosideros carminea W.R.B.Oliv.

Family

Myrtaceae

Brief Description

Woody long-climbing vine. Mature plants only reproductive. Juvenile foliage hairy, with young growth often pinkish. Adult leaves more or less circular, dark glossy green above, pale green below, surfaces without any obvious glandular spotting. Flowers carmine borne in dense, terminal, fluffy, clusters.

Flora Category

Vascular - Native

NVS Species Code

METCAR

The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.

Structural Class

Dicotyledonous Lianes and Related Trailing Plants

Synonyms

Metrosideros diffusa Hook.f.

Distribution

Endemic. New Zealand: North Island (from Te Paki south to Taranaki in the west and Mahia Peninsula in the east)

Habitat

Coastal to montane (mainly coastal to lowland). A vine of closed forest and forest margins (often along water ways and on ridge lines, especially on rock outcrops and cliff faces).

Features

Vine up to 15 m (usually less). Bark dark brown to grey, ± tessellated, and flaking in tabular shards. Growth dimorphic, juvenile and climbing vines sparingly branched, mature (adult - reproductive state) heavily branched. Branchlets terete, finely pubescent. Leaves, close-set, coriaceous, petiolate; petioles 1-3 mm. long; lamina of juveniles 10-20 × 8-18 mm, suborbicular, orbicular to broadly ovate, apices obtuse to subacute; adaxially green to dark green, abaxially paler (young foliage (and branchlet growing points) usually pink-tinged), both surfaces finely to distinctly pubescent, hairs pinkish, oil glands conspicuous abaxially not punctate,; adult lamina 15-35 × 7-30 mm, elliptic-oblong, ovate-oblong to broad ovate, apices obtuse to subacute, adaxially dark green and glossy, adaxially paler, ± glossy, ± glabrous. Inflorescences in axillary and/or terminal few- to many-flowered cymose botyria crowded toward apex of branchlets (often obscuring the foliage); peduncles and pedicels finely pubescent, peduncles 20-60 mm long, pedicels 5-10 mm long. Hypanthium urceolate or globose, initially fleshy, finely pubescent, ± glabrescent; calyx lobes 1.8-2.3 mm long, oblong, subacute. Petals 5 × 4 mm, caducous, suborbicular, carmine, shortly clawed, margins ± unevenly crenulate to indistinctly toothed or undulose; stamens numerous 10-15 mm long carmine. Capsule 6-9 mm diameter, subglobose to globose, 3(-4)-valved, exserted, ± woody, dark brown to brown-black when mature.

Similar Taxa

Adult vines are easily recognised when flowering by the profusion of carmine flowers - quite unlike any other New Zealand rata vine. However, this species is most often found as juveniles, and these have a superficial resemblance to M. perforata. From that species M. carminea can be distinguished by the branch tips and young emergent leaves which are very hairy and tinged pink. Both species have prominent oil glands on their leaves but in M. carminea these are never pitted (punctate) like those of M. perforata.

Flowering

August - November

Flower Colours

Red / Pink

Fruiting

January - April

Propagation Technique

Easily grown from rooted pieces. Also grown from semi-hardwood cuttings. Indeed adult plants are often propagated from cuttings and while these don't climb they form an excellent small shrub suitable for rockeries and tub or pot culture. Metrosideros carminea is an excellent vine for growing up walls and rock faces, doing best if its roots are planted in a free draining, humus enriched, moist soil, and the plants allowed to climb up into the sun. Metrosideros carminea is frost sensitive and young vines will need to be carefully nurtured until they are well established.

Threats

Not Threatened. Metrosideros carminea is however most often found as juveniles, in part because the adult vines (at least in dense forest) are often overlooked as they occur high up in the canopy. In some areas adult vines are heavily browsed by possums.

Chromosome No.

2n = 22

Endemic Taxon

Yes

Endemic Genus

No

Endemic Family

No

Where To Buy

Commonly available from most retail nurseries, though often sold as adult cutting grown plants only (these will not climb).     

Attribution

Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (5 January 2013). Description adapted from Allan (1961) supplemented with observations made from herbarium and fresh material.

References and further reading

Allan, H.H. 1961: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. I. Wellington, Government Printer.

This page last updated on 21 Dec 2013