This plant list has been compiled by the stated observer(s) and been provided to NZPCN for public use in good faith. NZPCN cannot guarantee that data contained in these lists are up to date or accurate. Most species lists are not corroborated with herbarium specimens. Note, species lists are not typically an exhaustive presence/absence survey of an area and often may focus on a single habitat or only contain species visible at a particular time of year (for example, spring annual herbs may go unobserved during much of the year). These lists should not be solely relied on for the purpose of assessing environmental effects or for preparing restoration plans - for this work a site visit is critical.

Site name: Mangemaneroa - Howick (MMRO)

List name: Esler, Landcare

Source/Observer: Esler, Landcare AE Esler; TF Cheeseman; Auck Bot Soc

Number of observations: 224

District: Auckland

Date: 01/06/1991

SpeciesStructural classConservation statusNative/Exotic
Adiantum aethiopicum
(maidenhair, makaka, true maidenhair)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Adiantum cunninghamii
(common maidenhair, Cunningham's maidenhair)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Adiantum diaphanum
(tuberous maidenhair, small maidenhair)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Adiantum fulvum
(maidenhair)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Adiantum hispidulum
(rosy maidenhair)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Agrostis capillaris
(browntop)
GrassesExotic
Alectryon excelsus subsp. excelsus
(New Zealand ash, tītoki)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Alsophila tricolor
(silver fern, ponga)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Anthoxanthum odoratum
(sweet vernal)
GrassesExotic
Apodasmia similis
(jointed wire rush, oioi)
Rushes & Allied PlantsNot ThreatenedNative
Araujia hortorum
(moth plant, moth vine)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsExotic
Asparagus asparagoides
(smilax)
Lianes - MonocotsExotic
Asplenium bulbiferum
(hen and chicken fern, pikopiko, mother spleenwort)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Asplenium flaccidum
(drooping spleenwort, hanging spleenwort)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Asplenium gracillimum
(hen & chicken fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Asplenium hookerianum var. hookerianum
(Hooker's spleenwort)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Asplenium lamprophyllumFernsNot ThreatenedNative
Asplenium oblongifolium
(huruhuruwhenua, shining spleenwort)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Asplenium polyodon
(sickle spleenwort)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Astelia banksii
(coastal astelia, shore kowharawhara)
Herbs - MonocotsNot ThreatenedNative
Astelia microspermaHerbs - MonocotsNot ThreatenedNative
Austroblechnum lanceolatum
(lance fern, nini, rereti)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Austrostipa stipoides
(coastal immorality grass, buggar grass)
GrassesNot ThreatenedNative
Avicennia marina subsp. australasica
(manawa, mangrove)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Beilschmiedia tarairi
(taraire)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Beilschmiedia tawa
(tawa)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Bolboschoenus fluviatilis
(marsh clubrush, kukuraho, purua grass)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Bolboschoenus medianus
(purua grass)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Brachyglottis repanda
(rangiora, bushman's toilet paper, bushman's friend)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Calystegia sepium subsp. roseata
(pink bindweed)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Carex dissita
(forest sedge)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Carex divisaSedgesExotic
Carex divulsa
(grey sedge)
SedgesExotic
Carex flagellifera
(Glen Murray tussock, trip me up)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Carex lambertiana
(forest sedge)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Carex ochrosaccus
(forest sedge)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Carex solandri
(forest sedge, Solander's sedge)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Carex spinirostris
(coastal sedge, petrel scrub sedge)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Carex uncinata
(bastard grass, hook sedge, kamu, matau-a-maui)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Carex virgata
(swamp sedge, pukio, toitoi, toetoe)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Carmichaelia australis
(common native broom, mākaka, maukoro, tainoka, taunoka, taranagahape)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Carpodetus serratus
(marbleleaf, putaputawētā, piripiriwhata)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Centaurium erythraea
(centaury)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Centella uniflora
(centella)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Cirsium vulgare
(Scotch thistle)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesExotic
Clematis paniculata
(white clematis, puawananga)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Coprosma arborea
(māmāngi, tree coprosma)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Coprosma macrocarpa subsp. minorTrees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Coprosma robusta
(karamū, glossy karamū)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Cordyline australis
(cabbage tree, tī, tī kōuka, palm lily)
Trees & Shrubs - MonocotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Coriaria arborea var. arborea
(tutu, tree tutu)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Cortaderia selloana
(pampas grass)
GrassesExotic
Corynocarpus laevigatus
(karaka, kopi)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Cotula coronopifolia
(bachelor's button, yellow buttons, waterbuttons)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesNot ThreatenedNative
Crataegus monogyna
(hawthorn)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Crepis capillaris
(hawksbeard)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesExotic
Cyperus eragrostis
(umbrella sedge)
SedgesExotic
Cyperus ustulatus
(coastal cutty grass, giant umbrella sedge, cyperus)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Dacrycarpus dacrydioides
(kahikatea, white pine)
Trees & Shrubs - GymnospermsNot ThreatenedNative
Dacrydium cupressinum
(rimu, red pine)
Trees & Shrubs - GymnospermsNot ThreatenedNative
Dactylis glomerata
(cocksfoot)
GrassesExotic
Delairea odorata
(German ivy)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsExotic
Dendroconche scandens
(fragrant fern, mokimoki)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Deparia petersenii subsp. congruaFernsNot ThreatenedNative
Dianella nigra
(turutu, New Zealand blueberry, inkberry)
Herbs - MonocotsNot ThreatenedNative
Dicksonia squarrosa
(wheki, rough tree fern, harsh tree fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Didymocheton spectabilis
(kohekohe, New Zealand mahogany)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Diphasium scariosum
(creeping clubmoss)
Lycophytes (clubmosses, selaginella, quillworts)Not ThreatenedNative
Diplazium australeFernsNot ThreatenedNative
Doodia australis
(rasp fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Drymoanthus adversus
(fleshy tree orchid)
OrchidsNot ThreatenedNative
Earina mucronata
(bamboo orchid, peka-a-waka, spring earina)
OrchidsNot ThreatenedNative
Elaeocarpus dentatus var. dentatus
(hīnau)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Erigeron sumatrensis
(broad-leaved flea-bane)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesExotic
Euchiton japonicusHerbs - Dicotyledonous compositesNot ThreatenedNative
Ficus macrophylla
(Moreton Bay fig)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Freycinetia banksii
(kiekie)
Lianes - MonocotsNot ThreatenedNative
Fuchsia boliviana var. luxuriansTrees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Fuchsia excorticata
(kōtukutuku, tree fuchsia)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Gahnia lacera
(cutty grass)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Galium divaricatum
(slender bedstraw)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Geniostoma ligustrifolium var. ligustrifolium
(hangehange)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Haloragis erecta subsp. erecta
(toatoa, fire weed, shrubby haloragis)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Hedycarya arborea
(porokaiwhiri, pigeonwood)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Hedychium gardnerianum
(wild ginger, kahili ginger)
Herbs - MonocotsExotic
Helminthotheca echioides
(Oxtongue)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesExotic
Hesperocyparis macrocarpa
(macrocarpa)
Trees & Shrubs - GymnospermsExotic
Histiopteris incisa
(histiopteris, water fern, mātātā, bat's wing fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Hoheria populnea
(lacebark, houhere, ribbonwood)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Holcus lanatus
(Yorkshire fog)
GrassesExotic
Hydrocotyle moschata var. moschata
(hairy pennywort)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Hymenophyllum demissum
(drooping filmy fern, Irirangi, piripiri)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Hypolepis ambiguaFernsNot ThreatenedNative
Icarus filiformis
(thread fern, climbing hard fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Isolepis cernua var. cernua
(slender clubrush)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Jacobaea vulgaris
(ragwort)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesExotic
Jasminum polyanthum
(jasmine)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsExotic
Juncus acuminatus
(sharp-fruited rush)
Rushes & Allied PlantsExotic
Juncus articulatus
(jointed rush)
Rushes & Allied PlantsExotic
Juncus edgariae
(wiwi, Edgar's rush)
Rushes & Allied PlantsNot ThreatenedNative
Juncus kraussii subsp. australiensis
(sea rush)
Rushes & Allied PlantsNot ThreatenedNative
Juncus pallidus
(giant rush, leafless rush)
Rushes & Allied PlantsNot ThreatenedNative
Juncus pauciflorus
(leafless rush)
Rushes & Allied PlantsThreatened – Nationally VulnerableNative
Juncus planifolius
(grass-leaved rush)
Rushes & Allied PlantsNot ThreatenedNative
Juncus prismatocarpusRushes & Allied PlantsNot ThreatenedNative
Knightia excelsa
(rewarewa, NZ honeysuckle)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Koeleria antarcticaGrassesAt Risk – DecliningNative
Kunzea ericoides
(kānuka)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsThreatened – Nationally VulnerableNative
Lastreopsis hispida
(hairy fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Leptospermum scoparium var. scoparium
(mānuka, kahikātoa)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsAt Risk – DecliningNative
Leucopogon fasciculatus
(mingimingi, tall mingimingi)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Leycesteria formosa
(Himalayan honeysuckle)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Ligustrum lucidum
(tree privet)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Ligustrum sinense
(Chinese privet)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Lilaeopsis novae-zelandiaeHerbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Linum bienne
(pale flax)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Litsea calicaris
(mangeao, tangeao)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Lobelia anceps
(New Zealand lobelia, shore lobelia)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Lolium arundinaceum subsp. arundinaceum
(tall fescue)
GrassesExotic
Lonicera japonica
(Japanese honeysuckle)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsExotic
Lotus pedunculatus
(lotus)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Luzula picta var. limosaRushes & Allied PlantsNot ThreatenedNative
Lysimachia arvensis subsp. arvensis var. arvensis
(pimpernel)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Lythrum hyssopifolia
(hyssop loosestrife)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Machaerina rubiginosa
(baumea)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Melicytus micranthus
(swamp māhoe. manakura)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Melicytus ramiflorus subsp. ramiflorus
(māhoe, hinahina, whitey wood)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Mentha pulegium
(pennyroyal)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Metrosideros excelsa
(pōhutukawa)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsThreatened – Nationally VulnerableNative
Metrosideros fulgens
(climbing rātā)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsThreatened – Nationally VulnerableNative
Metrosideros perforata
(akatea)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsThreatened – Nationally VulnerableNative
Metrosideros robusta
(northern rātā)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsThreatened – Nationally VulnerableNative
Microlaena stipoides
(meadow rice grass, slender rice grass)
GrassesNot ThreatenedNative
Microtis unifolia
(onion-leaved orchid, microtis)
OrchidsNot ThreatenedNative
Muehlenbeckia australis
(pōhuehue, large-leaved muehlenbeckia)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Muehlenbeckia complexa var. complexa
(small-leaved pōhuehue, scrub pōhuehue, wire vine)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Myrsine australis
(red mapou, red matipo, mapau, red maple)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Nasturtium officinale
(Watercress)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Nestegis lanceolata
(white maire)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Notogrammitis billardierei
(common strap fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Oplismenus hirtellus subsp. imbecillisGrassesNot ThreatenedNative
Paesia scaberula
(lace fern, ring fern, scented fern, pig fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Pakau pennigera
(gully fern, feather fern, piupiu)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Parablechnum novae-zelandiae
(kiokio, horokio, palm leaf fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Parapolystichum glabellum
(smooth shield fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Parapolystichum microsorumFernsNot ThreatenedNative
Paraserianthes lophantha
(brush wattle)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Parsonsia heterophylla
(New Zealand jasmine)
Lianes & Related Trailing Plants - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Paspalum dilatatum
(paspalum)
GrassesExotic
Paspalum distichum
(Mercer grass)
GrassesExotic
Paspalum vaginatum
(saltwater paspalum)
GrassesExotic
Pellaea rotundifolia
(round-leaved fern, New Zealand cliff brake)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Persicaria decipiensHerbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Phormium tenax
(flax, harakeke, kōrari (Māori name for inflorescence).)
Herbs - MonocotsNot ThreatenedNative
Phyllocladus trichomanoides
(tānekaha, celery pine)
Trees & Shrubs - GymnospermsNot ThreatenedNative
Physalis peruviana
(Cape gooseberry)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Phytolacca octandra
(inkweed)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Pinus radiata
(Monterey pine, radiata pine)
Trees & Shrubs - GymnospermsExotic
Piper excelsum subsp. excelsum
(kawakawa, pepper tree)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Pittosporum crassifolium
(karo)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Pittosporum tenuifolium
(kohukohu, kōhūhū, black matipo)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Plagianthus divaricatus
(salt marsh ribbonwood, marsh ribbonwood)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Plantago australis
(swamp plantain)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Plantago coronopus
(buck's horn plantain)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Plantago lanceolata
(narrow-leaved plantain)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Plectranthus ciliatus
(plectranthus)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Poa anceps
(broad-leaved poa)
GrassesNot ThreatenedNative
Poa annua
(annual poa)
GrassesExotic
Podocarpus laetus
(mountain tōtara, Hall's tōtara, thin-barked tōtara, tōtara-kiri-kōtukutuku)
Trees & Shrubs - GymnospermsNot ThreatenedNative
Podocarpus totara var. totara
(tōtara)
Trees & Shrubs - GymnospermsNot ThreatenedNative
Polystichum neozelandicum subsp. neozelandicumFernsNot ThreatenedNative
Potentilla indica
(Indian strawberry)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Prunella vulgaris
(self-heal)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Pseudopanax crassifolius
(horoeka, lancewood)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Pseudopanax lessonii
(Houpara)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Pteridium esculentum
(bracken, rarauhe, bracken fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Pteris macilenta
(sweet fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Pteris tremula
(shaking brake, tender brake, Australian bracken)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Pyrrosia elaeagnifolia
(leather-leaf fern, pyrrosia)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Ranunculus reflexus
(hairy buttercup, maru, maruru, kopukapuka, pirikau)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Ranunculus repens
(buttercup)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Rhaphiolepis bibas
(loquat)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Rhopalostylis sapida
(nīkau)
Trees & Shrubs - MonocotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Ripogonum scandens
(supplejack, kareao, pirita)
Lianes - MonocotsNot ThreatenedNative
Rubus cissoides
(tātarāmoa, bush lawyer)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Rubus fruticosus agg.
(blackberry)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Rumex brownii
(hooked dock)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Rumex crispus
(curled dock)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Rytidosperma biannulare
(gumland bristle grass)
GrassesNot ThreatenedNative
Rytidosperma gracile
(dainty bristle grass)
GrassesNot ThreatenedNative
Salicornia quinqueflora
(glasswort)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Samolus repens var. repens
(Sea primrose, shore pimpernel, water pimpernel)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Schefflera digitata
(patatē, patē, seven-finger)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Schoenus maschalinus
(dwarf bog rush)
SedgesNot ThreatenedNative
Selaginella kraussiana
(Selaginella, African clubmoss)
Lycophytes (clubmosses, selaginella, quillworts)Exotic
Selliera radicans
(selliera, remuremu, half-star)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Senecio bipinnatisectus
(Australian fireweed)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesNot ThreatenedNative
Senecio esleri
(Esler's fireweed)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesNot ThreatenedNative
Senecio glomeratus subsp. glomeratus
(fireweed)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesNot ThreatenedNative
Senecio hispidulus
(fireweed)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesNot ThreatenedNative
Senecio minimus
(fireweed)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesNot ThreatenedNative
Senecio vulgaris
(common groundsel)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesExotic
Silybum marianum
(variegated thistle)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesExotic
Solanum americanum
(small-flowered nightshade)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Solanum mauritianum
(woolly nightshade)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Solanum nigrum
(black nightshade)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Sonchus oleraceus
(sow thistle, sowthistle)
Herbs - Dicotyledonous compositesExotic
Sophora microphylla
(kōwhai, weeping kōwhai, small-leaved kōwhai)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Sphaeropteris medullaris
(mamaku, black tree fern)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Stachys sylvatica
(hedge woundwort)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Streblus heterophyllus
(small-leaved milk tree, tūrepo)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Toxicodendron succedaneum
(Japanese wax-tree)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Tradescantia fluminensis
(wandering Jew)
Herbs - MonocotsExotic
Trifolium repens
(white clover)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Triglochin striata
(triglochin)
Herbs - MonocotsNot ThreatenedNative
Tropaeolum majus
(nasturtium)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesExotic
Ulex europaeus
(gorse)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsExotic
Veronica plebeiaHerbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Veronica stricta var. stricta
(koromiko)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Vitex lucens
(pūriri)
Trees & Shrubs - DicotyledonsNot ThreatenedNative
Wahlenbergia violacea
(violet harebell)
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than CompositesNot ThreatenedNative
Zantedeschia aethiopica
(arum lily)
Herbs - MonocotsExotic
Zealandia pustulata subsp. pustulata
(hound's tongue, kōwaowao, pāraharaha)
FernsNot ThreatenedNative
Zostera muelleri subsp. novazelandica
(seagrass, eelgrass, nana, zostera, rimurehia)
Herbs - MonocotsAt Risk – DecliningNative