Melicytus ramiflorus subsp. ramiflorus
māhoe, hinahina, whitey wood
Melicytus ramiflorus J.R.Forst. et G.Forst. subsp. ramiflorus
Vascular – Native
Trees & Shrubs - Dicotyledons
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 32
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website. This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants.
Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – an interim threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
- Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2017 . 2018. Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Department of Conservation. Source: NZTCS and licensed by DOC for reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence.
2017 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Common small tree with a knobbly pale trunk and thin light green toothed leaves that have the vein network much more visible on the paler underside. Leaves 5-20cm long, tapering to tip. Flowers greenish, in clusters along twigs. Fruit purple.
Endemic subspecies. Three other subspecies occur, one endemic to Norfolk (probably a different species), one to Fiji and one to Samoa. In addition forms from Raoul Island (Kermadec Islands Group) and the Three Kings and eastern Northland may warrant formal recognition. Research into this variation is in progress.
Abundant small tree of coastal, lowland, and lower montane forests throughout the country.
Wetland plant indicator status rating
FACU: Facultative Upland
Occasionally is a hydrophyte but usually occurs in uplands (non-wetlands).
Shrub or small tree up to 15 m tall. Trunk 1 or more, 0.6-0.8 m diam, typically much branched from near base. Wood soft, white. Bark greyish-white, underbark bright green. Branchlets numerous, twiggy, rather brittle. Petioles 20 mm or more long. Leaves, firmly fleshy, 50-150 x 30-50 mm, light or dark green, lanceolate-oblong to elliptic oblong, apex acute to acuminate (rarely obtuse), leaf margins coarsely serrated (very rarely subentire, or irregularly coarsely toothed). Inflorescence 2-10 flowered fascicles arising from branchlets or leaf axils. Flowers 3-4 mm diam., female or inconstant male (flowers types on separate plants) borne on slender pedicels 5-10 mm long. Bracts subtending flowers, calyx lobes minute, petals greenish-yellow, yellow (rarely cream), lanceolate, apex obtuse. Anthers sessile, stigma 4-6-lobed. Fruit a violet, dark blue or purple berry, 4-5 mm diam., obovoid to globose. Seeds 3-6 per berry.
Most frequently confused with M. macrophyllus which differs by the leathery, somewhat fleshy dark green, often mottled purple, obovate-oblong leaves with rather coarse serrations. Flowers are also larger (6.5-8 mm diam.) and the broader petals are usually white. M. macrophyllus is a species of kauri forests, and is not known with certainty south of Auckland City. The Waikari Creek (near Dunedin) record cited in the New Zealand Flora is the result of specimen mislabelling.
November - February
November - March
Easy from fresh seed. Can be grown from semi-hardwood cuttings but generally slow without a mist unit.
melicytus: From the Greek meli (honey) and kytos (hollow container), referring to the staminal nectaries of the flowers. Literally “honey-cave”
Where To Buy
Commonly cultivated and often available from commercial nurseries. In many urban areas abutting indigenous forest mahoe self naturalises into gardens. The fruits are bird dispersed, so plants can also appear many kilometres from forest remnants.
Past treatments have recognised four subspecies in M. ramiflorus, subsp. oblongifolius of Norfolk Island, subsp. fastigiata of Fiji and subsp. samoensis of Samoa. Recent treatments, particularly that of Art Whistler have advocated that all of these subspecies should be regarded as distinct species. NZPCN has followed this recent opinion.
Fact sheet prepared by P.J. de Lange for NZPCN (1 June 2013)
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Melicytus ramiflorus subsp. ramiflorus Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/melicytus-ramiflorus-subsp-ramiflorus/ (Date website was queried)