Hen and chicken fern, pikopiko, mother spleenwort
Asplenium marinum var. bulbifera (G.Forst.) F.Muell.; Caenopteris bulbifera (G.Forst.) Desv.;
Vascular – Native
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 144
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley.
2012 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Endemic. North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands
Coastal to subalpine. Usually in lowland forest where it is a common species of the ground-layer, especially in high rainfall areas. Commonly associated with riparian forest, and as a species of base-rich substrates. Frequently sympatric and so commonly forming hybrids with other asplenia. It is commonly sympatric with A. gracillimum Colenso.
Rhizome short, stout, erect, bearing ovate scales up to 15 × 5 mm. Stipes 50-300 mm long, brown on underside, green above, stout, covered in small brown ovate scales. Laminae lanceolate to elliptic, 0.15-1.20 m, 70-300 mm, bi- to tripinnate, sometimes bearing bulbils. Raches pale green to yellow-green, scaly, prominently grooved, usually bulbiferous. Pinnae 15-30 (or more) pairs, ovate to narrowly ovate, acuminate, shortly stalked, 30-200 × 10-50 mm, scaly on underside, basal pair pointing downwards when fresh. Secondary pinnae sessile or shortly stalked, very narrowly elliptic to ovate or elliptic, obtuse, deeply serrate or sometimes almost pinnate, decreasing in size from base to apex, basal acroscopic pinnule often enlarged (up to 40 × 10 mm). Ultimate pinnules narrowly oblong, ± entire to crenate-serrate, up to 10 mm long. Sori numerous, broad, submarginal, 2-4 mm long.
Asplenium bulbiferum, the world famous Hen & Chicken fern is only ever likely to be confused with the closely related A. gracillimum. From that species it is distinguished by its usually bulbiferous; mostly pale green fronds and ovate stipe scales which lack long filiform apices. Asplenium bulbiferum is a tetraploid (2n = 144) and A. gracillimum an octoploid (2n = 288), so hybrids between these two species are sterile.
Not applicable - spore producing
Not applicable - spore producing
Easily grown, and popular in cultivation. However, most plants sold as this species are the sterile hybrid A. xlucrosum Perrie et Brownsey (A. bulbliferum x A. dimorphum Kunze). An excellent pot plant but as with all asplenia prone to infestations of scale and mealy bugs.
asplenium: From the Greek a- ‘without’ and splene ‘spleen’, a northern hemisphere species, the black spleenwort (Asplenium adiantum-nigrum), was once believed to be a cure for diseases of the spleen.
bulbiferum: Bearing bulbills or bulbs
Where To Buy
Commonly sold by many plant nurseries. However some plants sold as this species are in fact a sterile hybrid A. x lucrosum (A. bulbiferum x A. dimorphum).
Fact Sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (3 February 2005). Description from: Brownsey (1977)
References and further reading
Brownsey, P.J. 1977: A taxonomic revision of the New Zealand species of Asplenium. New Zealand Journal of Botany 15: 39-86.
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Asplenium bulbiferum Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/asplenium-bulbiferum/ (Date website was queried)