supplejack, kareao, pirita
Smilax ripogonum Forst.f.
Vascular – Native
Lianes - Monocots
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 30
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Endemic. North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands
Coastal to montane. Usually in forest but occasionally in swamps (where it sprawls through flax and fern), and common in karst country where it often grows in doline, tomo and cave entrances
Wetland plant indicator status rating
Information derived from the revised national wetland plant list prepared to assist councils in delineating and monitoring wetlands (Clarkson et al., 2021 Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research Contract Report LC3975 for Hawke’s Bay Regional Council). The national plant list categorises plants by the extent to which they are found in wetlands and not ‘drylands’. The indicator status ratings are OBL (obligate wetland), FACW (facultative wetland), FAC (facultative), FACU (facultative upland), and UPL (obligate upland).
FACU: Facultative Upland
Occasionally is a hydrophyte but usually occurs in uplands (non-wetlands).
Woody, evergreen, twining forest liane. Rhizome horizontal, stout, lignaceous, usually swollen into a woody tuber 30-60 mm diameter at base of erect stem. Stems of two kinds: (a) twining stems growing upward from mature rhizome on forest floor, without green lvs, succulent at tip; these are several metres long, c.15–20 mm diameter, little branched, almost black, finely pubescent; nodes c.100–200 mm apart, thickened; sheathing scale leaves alternate, subopposite or opposite, membranous, 10-30 mm long, charcoal black, narrowly deltoid, finely brown-scabrid, caducous. (b) non-twining stems arising from the long stems in full light; these are to 1 m long, c.5 mm diameter, more branched and widely spreading, light brown, glabrous; internodes shorter, the distal ones bearing green leaves and inflorescences. Leaves mostly opposite, 55–160(-230) × 20–60(-80) mm, green, dark green or yellow-green, ± coriaceous, narrow-ovate to oblong, narrowed rather abruptly to tip, margins entire and ± undulate; petiole c.10-15 mm long, ± channelled. Inflorescence axillary or terminal, simple or compound, 100-150(-280) mm long; bracts usually all small and membranous, rarely foliaceous. Pedicels c.5–9 mm long, without bracteole at base but with one or more adjacent to and resembling perianth-segs. Flowers not crowded. Tepals green often hyaline green, minute, free, spreading. Stamens much > tepals; filaments c.2 mm long; anthers greenish, yellow or cream, linear-oblong, c.3.0–5.0 × 1.0–1.5 mm, dehiscing laterally by long slits. Ovary globose, c.1.5 mm diameter; ovules 2 per locule, attached about mid-level; style 2 mm long, including stigma of 3 verrucose lobes. Fruit globose, bright red, c.10-15 mm diameter, pericarp thin, fleshy, tightly stretched over 1–2(-3) hard, spotted seeds, seed when single almost spherical. Fuit. falling, 12–15 months after flowering, by abscission layer just above perianth.
October - May
Throughout the year
Easily grown from fresh fruit. Does best when planted in a moist soil within a shade site in a place where the vines can grown up into the sun.
ripogonum: Pliant shoots with kneed joints
scandens: Climbing; from the Latin scandere; groth habit
Where To Buy
Occasionally available from specialist native plant nurseries.
The supple, flexuous and pliant but incredibly strong stems were the preferred medium from which Maori made hinaki (eel traps), they were also (in less politically correct times) the favoured source for canes for use in New Zealand schools!
Description adapted from Moore & Edgar (1970). Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange 14 February 2011.
References and further reading
Moore, L.B.; Edgar, E. 1970: Flora of New Zealand Vol. II. Wellington, Government Printer.
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Ripogonum scandens Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/ripogonum-scandens/ (Date website was queried)