Fragrant fern, mokimoki
Phymatosorus scandens (G. Forst.) C. Presl; Phymatosorus scandens (G. Forst.) Pic. Serm.; Polypodium pustulatum sensu A.Cunn.; Microsorium pustulatum sensu Dobbie; Phymatodes pustulata sensu Hook.f.; Phymatosorus scandens (G.Forst.) Pic.Serm.; Drynaria scandens (G.Forst.) Fée; Microsorum scandens (G. Forst.) Tindale
Vascular – Native
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 74
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley.
2012 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Indigenous. New Zealand: North, South and Chatham Islands - widespread from North Cape to Franz Josef (Westland). Also Australia (Eastern Australia (Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria), also Lord Howe Island.
Coastal to lowland, in forest. Dendroconche scandens is a common creeping fern covering rock piles, tree and tree fern trunks and bare ground. Unlike the superficially similar Zealandia pustulata, Dendroconche scandens is much less drought tolerant and so prefers less open, shaded and damper situations.
Epiphytic or rupestral scrambling or climbing fern. Rhizomes long-creeping, 2-4 mm diameter, rather slender, flexuose (wiry), densely invested in persistent scales. Scales 2.0-8.0 × 1.0-2.2 mm, dark brown to purple-brown, ovate to narrowly ovate, squarrose, acuminate, minutely dentate near base. Fronds 75-580 × 10-30 mm (simple fronds 45-39 × 6-31 mm), dull green. Stipes 6-160 mm long, slender, pale, glossy, sparsely scaly. Lamina membranous, deeply pinnatifid or simple, strongly, pleasantly scented when fresh or recently dried. Pinnae in 1-20 pairs, 8-100 × 2.5-18 mm, falcate, strongly ascending, tapering toward apices, base adnate, tapering into stipe; margins often undulose; veins reticulate, usually forming only 1 series of areoles between costa (midrib in simple fronds) and lobe margin, glabrous part from a few scattered scales on midrib and costae. Sori in 1 row close to margin on each side of costa of laminal lobe or midrib in simple fronds, rounded or sometimes elongated or oval, impressed into abaxial lamina, forming low protuberances on the adaxial lamina surface. Spores orange-brown.
Easily distinguished from the two other New Zealand Microsoroideae polypodiaceous ferns in the genus Zealandia by the narrow, long-creeping, dorsiventrally flattened rhizomes which are rarely pruinose, have laterally inserted climbing roots, and by the sori which are not deeply impressed in the lamina. The rhizome scales of Dendroconche scandens are also erect, membranous, coloured dark brown to purple-brown, and the fronds are dull green, narrower, and usually bear more pinnae. When crushed the fronds of Dendroconche scandens are pleasantly aromatic.
Not applicable - spore producing
Not applicable - spore producing
Easily grown from rooted pieces of rhizome. Excellent in a hanging basket, large pot, or trained to grow over rocks, and logs but requires a shaded site and needs frequent watering. Once established it rarely requires much attention and has the advantage of being mostly disease and pest free.
scandens: Climbing; from the Latin scandere; groth habit
The scented fronds of Dendroconche scandens known as “mokimoki” were much used by Maori to mask unpleasant odours.
The treatment of Testo et al. (2019) in which the New Zealand ferns previously treated by New Zealand authors as Microsorum (see Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 2000) are segregated into two genera, Dendroconche and Zealandia is followed here.
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (13 January 2012). Description adapted from Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth (2000) and Bostock & Spokes (1998).
References and further reading
Bostock, P.D.; Spokes, T.M. 1998: Polypodiaceae. Pp. 468-495. Flora of Australia 48. Australian Biological Resources Study, CSIRO Canberra
Brownsey, P.J.; Smith-Dodsworth, J.C. 2000: New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants. Auckland, David Bateman
Testo, W.L.; Field, A.R.; Sessa, E.B.; Sundue, M. 2019: Phylogenetic and morphological analyses support the resurrection of Dendroconche and the recognition of two new genera in Polypodiaceae Subfamily Microsoroideae. Systematic Botany 44(4): 1-16. DOI 10.1600/036364419X15650157948607
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Dendroconche scandens Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/dendroconche-scandens/ (Date website was queried)