Vascular – Exotic
Herbs - Dicotyledonous composites
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
Erect biennial thistle growing up to 2.5m high and 2m wide; prominent white veins and blotches on spiny leaves which grow up to 60cm; large purple flowers are surrounded by spines and produce 50-200 black or brown seeds; seeds are 6-8mm long with downy hairs at one end.
November, December, January (February)
Mediterranean, S.W. Europe
Life Cycle Comments
Plants die in summer.
Most wind dispersal is probably within 10m of the plant. Seed can be spread in hay, by water, in mud, agricultural produce and grain, on machinery or animals.