rimu, red pine
Thalamia cupressina Spreng
Vascular – Native
Trees & Shrubs - Gymnosperms
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 20
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Endemic. North, South and Stewart Islands from North Cape south. Uncommon in large parts of the eastern South Island. Facultatively extinct on Banks Peninsula, where one natural tree is all that remains. Rimu is the type of the genus Dacrydium.
Lowland to montane forest - occasionally ascending to subalpine scrub.
Wetland plant indicator status rating
Information derived from the revised national wetland plant list prepared to assist councils in delineating and monitoring wetlands (Clarkson et al., 2021 Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research Contract Report LC3975 for Hawke’s Bay Regional Council). The national plant list categorises plants by the extent to which they are found in wetlands and not ‘drylands’. The indicator status ratings are OBL (obligate wetland), FACW (facultative wetland), FAC (facultative), FACU (facultative upland), and UPL (obligate upland).
FACU: Facultative Upland
Occasionally is a hydrophyte but usually occurs in uplands (non-wetlands).
Dioecious conifer 35(-60) m tall. Adult trees with trunk bare of branches for 3/4 of length. Trunk stout, 1.5-2 m diam., bark dark brown, falling off in large thick flakes. Wood dark red. Branches in juveniles numerous, slender, branchlets pendulous. Adult branches few, spreading, branchlets slender, pendulous. Leaves dark green, bronze-green, red-green or orange, imbricate, those of juveniles 4-7(-10) mm., 0.5-1 mm wide, keeled, acute, linear-subulate, subfalcate, decurrent; those of subadults ascending, incurved 4-6 mm., rhomboid; of adults similar but appressed, 2-3 mm., rigid, subacute, trigonous. Male and Female “cones” first appear on subadults. Male cones (strobili) solitary or paired, terminal 5-10 mm., oblong. Pollen yellow. Ovules solitary, terminal on up-curved branchlets. Receptacle a fleshy red or deep-orange cup 1-2 mm long. Seed oblong or elliptic-oblong, compressed in section, 3-3.8(-4) mm long, semi-glossy, dark-brown.
A very distinctive species which could not be confused with any other indigenous conifer. The very young juveniles have a superficial similarly to seedlings of silver pine (Manoao colensoi) but differ by their much finer, more numerous, dull rather than glossy red-green leaves.
December - March
Fruits take a year or more to mature and co-occur with young female cones, they are most frequently seen between February and May.
Arillate seeds are dispersed by frugivory (Thorsen et al., 2009).
Easily grown from fresh seed. Can be grown from hard-wood cuttings but rather slow to strike.
Not Threatened, although as a forest-type it has been greatly reduced through widespread logging. Very few intact examples of rimu-dominated forest remain in the North Island.
dacrydium: Tear drop
Where To Buy
Commonly cultivated and frequently sold by most commercial nurseries and outlets. A very popular garden tree.
The first indigenous beer was brewed using the young tips of rimu (as spruce beer) by Captain Cook at Dusky Sound in 1773 (Kirk 1889).
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange 3 February 2006. Description adapted from Allan (1961), Webb & Simpson (2001), fresh material and herbarium specimens.
References and further reading
Allan, H.H. 1961: Flora of New Zealand. Wellington, Government Printer.
Kirk, T. 1889: The Forest Flora of New Zealand. Wellington, Government Printer.
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309
Webb, C.J.; Simpson, M.J.A. 2001: Seeds of New Zealand Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Christchurch, Manuka Press.
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Dacrydium cupressinum Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/dacrydium-cupressinum/ (Date website was queried)