Kanono, manono, large-leaved coprosma, raurekau
Vascular – Native
Trees & Shrubs - Dicotyledons
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 44
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley.
2012 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Large shrub with pairs of thin wavy, mottled leaves. Leaves to 20cm long, oval, pointed, with small pits at junction of veins. Sharp dark point on stem between pairs of leaves. Fruit prange to red, on obvious stalks in open clusters.
Endemic. North to South Islands. In the South Island extending to Lake Ianthe in the west and the Marlborough Sounds in the east.
Common in the understorey of forest, and in sheltered shady sites from the coast to montane and cloud forest. In areas of high rainfall can be a major component of shrublands, and within regenerating forest. Often common along the margins of logging tracks and roads.
Shrub or small tree up to c. 6 m tall; plants much branched from base or with single trunk; branches and branchlets glabrous, smooth, under bark green. Interpetiolar stipules conspicuous, broadly deltoid, then tapering, apex with 2 porminent darkly pigmented denticles, glabrous. Leaves on smooth glabrous petioles 20-30 mm long; Lamina (100-)150-300 × (50-)70-100 mm, broadly elliptic to obovate, apex subacute or apiculate, base gradually narrowed to petiole; membranous to sub-coriaceous, adaxially dull glossy green or green mottled with maroon or purple, abaxially paler, margins flat or weakly undulose waved, rarely finely crenulate; venation prominent, reticulations conspicuous on both leaf surfaces, fine and close-set. Flowers in clusters on trichotomously branched peduncles up to 80 m. long. Male flowers with 4-5-toothed cupular calyx; corolla narrow-funnelform, lobes usually 5, acute, < tube; stamens us. 5. Female flowers usually with small stipulate bracts at axils of branches; calyx-teeth 5, small, acute; corolla tubular, lobes 5, narrow-triangular, acute, ± the same length as tube. Drupe reddish orange, oblong, 7-9 mm. long
Easily distinguished by the very large, broad, yellow-green leaves which are variously mottled with dark green or purple, and have prominent leaf “drip-tips”, and by the very large, entirely glandular leaf stipules - seen otherwise only in the very different looking Coprosma waima. It also differs from all of the other similar large-leaved species by its usually autumnal flowering pattern.
(March-) April (-June) but may also occasionally flower in September.
(September-) October-January (-April)
Very easy from fresh seed. Also easy from semi-hardwood cuttings. Prefers a shaded site in damp soil but will tolerate most garden situations.
coprosma: From the Greek kopros ‘dung’ and osme ‘smell’, referring to the foul smell of the species, literally ‘dung smell’
autumnalis: Autumn flowering
For at least the last 30 years this Coprosma was known in New Zealand by the name Coprosma grandifolia. Recently Large et al. (2020) have shown that Coprosma grandifolia is an superﬂuous name for C. lucida J.R.Forst. et G.Forst. because it includes the type of Ronabea australis A. Rich. (Coprosma australis (A.Rich.) B.L.Rob.), necessitating the reinstatement of Coprosma autumnalis Colenso for the plant known to iwi as kanono.
Fact sheet prepared by P.J. de Lange (30 August 2005). Description adapted from Allan (1961).
References and further reading
Allan, H.H. 1961: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. I. Government Printer, Wellington.
Large, M.F.; Mabberly, D.J.; Wood, E. 2020: Coprosma autumnalis (kanono; Rubiaceae) in New Zealand: nomenclature, iconography and phenology, Kew Bulletin 75: 37-43. DOI 10.1007/S12225-020-9876-4
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Coprosma autumnalis Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/coprosma-autumnalis/ (Date website was queried)