Gentiana serotina Cockayne, Chionogentias serotina (Cockayne) L.G.Adams, Oreophylax serotinus (Cockayne) Á.Löve nom. inval.
Vascular – Native
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than Composites
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 36
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Endemic. New Zealand: South Island (Canterbury, Otago, Southland)
Montane to subalpine. Mostly in tall and short tussocklands and shrub tussocklands of Festuca novae-zelandiae, Chionochloa macra, C. rigida, and C. flavescens. Also on river terraces, valley floors, less often on hillslopes and ridges, usually in well-drained soils, sometimes fringing tarns, rarely on limestone outcrops.
Plants polycarpic, height in flower 80–300 mm. Caudex unbranched or branched, 10–100 mm long, shaggy with dead leaf bases. Root 2.0–6.7 mm diameter at stem base. Flowering stems lateral only, or terminal on rosette-bearing branches, 1–13 per plant, largest fl owering stem 1.9–3.0 mm diameter at base, 1.0–2.0 mm diameter when dry, stem colour green or tinted crimson or purple-black, lateral flowering stems erect or decumbent, flowering stem leaves 1–5 pairs per stem, lowest pedicels from near apex of flowering stem. Rosette of leaves present and distinct from flowering stem leaves, leaves linear to narrowly elliptic, 32.0-160.0 × 3.5–15.0 mm wide, green or tinted crimson or purple-black below and on petiole and veins, sometimes leaf surface speckled purple-black, V-shaped or channelled, recurved or not, apex acute, petiole absent to distinct, 15.0–40.0 × 1.1–3.7–4.0 mm. Flowering stem leaves narrowly elliptic, sessile. Flowers 1–130 per plant, 15–21 mm long. Pedicels 1 or 2 per leaf axil, 12–26 mm long, 0.8–1.4 mm diameter. Calyx 7.4–13.8 mm long, green or green tinted purple-black, hairs at calyx–corolla fusion line absent or present; lobes 4.6–9.7 mm long, 2.0–3.0 mm wide at base, plane, apices acute, margins smooth to denticulate, sinus hairs sparse, rarely abundant. Corolla 14.1–19.5 mm long, white or pale lilac, veins mostly uncoloured, sometime darkly striped magenta; tube 4.3–6.2 mm long; lobes 9.6–13 mm long, 5.6–9.5 mm wide, hairs below sinus present; nectary 0.3–2.2 mm from corolla base. Filaments 7.0–11.2 mm long from corolla base, 0.65–1.4 mm wide. Anthers 1.8–3.2 mm long, anther wall blue-black, mouth yellow, extrorse at anthesis. Stigma colourless. Ovules 15–64 per ovary. Capsule 13–22 mm long.
Allied to G. bellidifolia from which it differs by its usually taller growth habit; longer, narrower, flatter leaves; usually more flowering stems and flowers per plant. The flowering stems of G. serotina tend to be decumbent while Otago and Southland plants of G. bellidifolia tend to be erect from the base. G. serotina resembles G. corymbifera subsp. gracilis and grows in the same habitat but differs in being polycarpic rather than biennial, in having only lateral flowering stems, and by having thinner flowering stems (2.8–3.0 mm cf. 4.2–5.3 mm diameter). Some G. serotina populations have high lilac flowers with dark magenta corolla veins
February – April
April – June
Seeds dispersed by ballistic projection, wind and water (Thorsen et al., 2009)
Difficult. Should not be removed from the wild
gentianella: Little Gentiana (named after Gentius, 6th century king of Illyria, who found the roots of the yellow gentian to have a healing effect on his malaria-stricken troops)
serotina: Late flowering
Where To Buy
Fact Sheet for NZPCN prepared by P.J. de Lange (1 November 2004). Description modified from Glenny (2004)
References and further reading
Glenny, D. 2004: A revision of the genus Gentianella in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 42: 361-530.
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309