Vascular – Native
Trees & Shrubs - Dicotyledons
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 44
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Tall tree with a fluted base bearing pairs of oval glossy dark green toothed leaves inhabiting wetter sites throughout the North Island and Nelson. Twigs square, reddish. Leaves 4-8mm long, margin evenly toothed, in several pairs along stem. Flower small greenish. Fruit dry and covered in long hairs.
North and South Islands – Northland to Marlborough and Westland
Lowland semi-swamp forest and gully forest
Wetland plant indicator status rating
Information derived from the revised national wetland plant list prepared to assist councils in delineating and monitoring wetlands (Clarkson et al., 2021 Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research Contract Report LC3975 for Hawke’s Bay Regional Council). The national plant list categorises plants by the extent to which they are found in wetlands and not ‘drylands’. The indicator status ratings are OBL (obligate wetland), FACW (facultative wetland), FAC (facultative), FACU (facultative upland), and UPL (obligate upland).
Commonly occurs as either a hydrophyte or non-hydrophyte (non-wetlands).
Tree up to 35 metres tall; trunk up to 2 metres diameter, with plank-buttresses at base; bark pale; ultimate branchlets tetragonous, sparsely hairy. Leaves coriaceous on petioles up to 1 cm. long; lamina dark green and glossy above, paler below, 4-8 × 2.5-5 cm., elliptic to elliptic-obovate, coarsely bluntly serrate. Racemes axillary, up to 3 cm. long, pedicels softly hairy. Flowers more or less 6 mm. across; Staminate flowers 5-6-partite to near base, stamens more or less 12; Pistillate flowers urceolate, contracted above, segments spreading, carpels numerous. Achenes more or less 5 mm. long, fusiform; styles up to 2 cm. long, densely clad in long silky hairs.
(September) October - December
October – January
Pappate achenes are dispersed by wind (Thorsen et al., 2009).
novae-zelandiae: Of New Zealand
Description adapted by M. Ward from Allan (1961).
References and further reading
Allan, H. H. 1961 Flora of New Zealand. Volume I. Wellington, N. Z. pg. 139.
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309.