Euphrasia longiflora Kirk, Siphonidium longiflorum Armst., Anagosperma dispermum Wettst.
Vascular – Native
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than Composites
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | At Risk – Naturally Uncommon | Qualifiers: RR, Sp
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | At Risk – Naturally Uncommon | Qualifiers: RR, Sp
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Endemic. North and South Islands, in the North, Reporoa Bog, North-west Ruahine Range; in the South, coastal to montane western Nelson and Westland from Karamea to Okarito.
Sea level to 1000m a.s.l. usually in boggy or muddy places.
Wetland plant indicator status rating
Information derived from the revised national wetland plant list prepared to assist councils in delineating and monitoring wetlands (Clarkson et al., 2021 Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research Contract Report LC3975 for Hawke’s Bay Regional Council). The national plant list categorises plants by the extent to which they are found in wetlands and not ‘drylands’. The indicator status ratings are OBL (obligate wetland), FACW (facultative wetland), FAC (facultative), FACU (facultative upland), and UPL (obligate upland).
OBL: Obligate Wetland
Almost always is a hydrophyte, rarely in uplands (non-wetlands).
Succulent prostrate annual herb forming loosely matted patches but not rooting at nodes; main stem 1-2 mm diameter, more or less umbellately divided into usually 5 far-spreading, copiously oppositely branched stems up to approximately 200 mm or more long, or whole plant much smaller; stems and branches glabrous, or more or less pilose. Leaves sessile, fleshy, up to approximately 6 x 2.5 mm, lanceolate to ovate to quadrate in outline, acuminate, apiculate, entire or with a pair of narrow to filiform apiculate teeth up to 1.5 mm long about the middle (both forms usually on same plant), glabrous, or more or less pilose, segments sometimes tipped with cluster of hairs. Flowers borne singly along the branches on short generally horizontal pedicels which are bent abruptly at junction with calyx so that flower stands erect. Calyx 4-6 mm long, glabrous, or more or less pilose, cut approximately 1/2 way into narrow, acuminate, sometimes hair-tipped lobes, anterior clefts usually longer than other 3. Corolla white to cream, 9-15 mm long; tube up to 13 mm long, very narrow to filiform, flaring suddenly into limb 4-5 mm diameter; lobes of lower lip 1.5-2.5 mm wide, entire, of upper lip very short but wider, up to 3.5 mm wide. Anthers free, erect, golden yellow with completely glabrous margins, awns small, almost equal. Ovary with 1 ovule per locule; capsule broader than tall, rupturing calyx at anterior cleft; sometimes 2-seeded and symmetrically obcordate or bicornute, more often 1-seeded by abortion and asymmetric, approximately 2 x 4 mm and ovate to triangular in outline; apparently indehiscent. Seed close to ovate, approximately 1.3-1.4 x 2.3-2.8 (-3.5) mm long.
From Euphrasia wettsteiniana it can be distinguished by its smaller and usually shorter long-tubed flowers, and by its less nerved and not having distinctly unidentate leaves. In E. wettsteiniana the corolla (15-70 mm long), and anthers (2 mm long) are much larger than in E. disperma (9-15 mm, and 1mm long respectively). Recently there has been consensus that the outer corolla of E. wettsteiniana has yellow blotches present, which are not present on E. disperma.
When determining between the two species it would be best to consider all the potential differences.
December - March
February - April
Seeds is dispersed by wind and possibly water and ballistic projection (Thorsen et al., 2009).
The flowers are very short in bud, the corolla-tube elongating rapidly just before anthesis. As in Euphrasia dyeri and Euphrasia repens the large oblong cotyledons are often persistent.
Though a wide range in length of corolla-tube, anther-length and leaf-shape was noted in specimens examined (Allan 1961), it was not easy to recognize the distinct discontinuity described by du Rietz.
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by M.D. Ward (12 November 2020) Description adapted from Allan (1961).
References and further reading
Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand. Volume 1. Wellington: Government Printer. Pages 859-860.
du Rietz. G. E. 1931. The long-tubed New Zealand species of Euphrasia (=Siphonidium Armstr.). Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift. Volume 25: Pages 108-25.
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309
Webb, C.J. and Simpson, M.J., 2001. Seeds of New Zealand gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Manuka Press. Pages 335 & 338.
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: Ward, M.D. (Year at time of access): Euphrasia disperma Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/euphrasia-disperma/ (Date website was queried)