Vascular – Native
Dicotyledonous Herbs other than Composites
2n = 36
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley.
2012 | Threatened – Nationally Critical | Qualifiers: CD, EF, OL
Previous conservation statuses
2009 | Threatened – Nationally Critical | Qualifiers: OL, EF, CD
2004 | Threatened – Nationally Critical
Endemic. South Island, west coast, near Charleston
Coastal, on rock ledges and associated coastal turfs, often within spray zone
Tufted perennial plant up to 130 mm tall when flowering. Flowering stems terminal and lateral, tinted crimson, 4-10 per plant. Rosette leaves with distinct petiole 19-30 mm long. Lamina orbicular 35-44 x 10-17.5 mm, green, not recurved, margin not thickened; apex rounded. Pedicels 1 per leaf axil, 1-16 mm long. Flowers 8-38 per plant, 12-15 mm long, perfect, rarely female. Calyx 6-8.2 mm, green; lobes 3.9-5.5 x 1.8-2.4 mm, plane. Corolla 9.5-14.8 mm, white, veins purple; tube 2.6-4.5 mm; lobes 9.6-10.5 x 3.3-5 mm, nectaries 0.7-1.2 mm from corolla base. Filaments 5-7.4 mm from corolla base. Anthers 1-1.5 mm, anther wall blue-black, mouth yellow, extrorse at anthesis. Stigma colourless. Ovules 16-30 per ovary. Capsule 10-11.8 mm.
Most closely allied to G. saxosa (G.Forst.) Holub from which it is distinguished by the orbicular leaves, plane calyx lobes, crimson flowering stems, purple corolla veins, and smaller anthers (1-1.5 cf. 2-2.1 mm). It is endemic to northern Westland, whereas G. saxosa occurs from Fiordland and Otago south to Stewart Island.
(October-) November - February
December - May
Seeds dispersed by ballistic projection, wind and water (Thorsen et al., 2009)
Easy to grow from seed. Does best in a sunny but cool and damp situation. One of the few New Zealand gentians to grow reasonably well in cultivation. Should not be removed from the wild
Threatened by rock climbing, human traffic (trampling), goats, weeds and habitat deterioration. Previously recorded as Gentiana aff. saxosa (AK 7316; Charleston) in de Lange et al., 2004, Threatened and uncommon plants on New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Botany 42: 45-76.
gentianella: Little Gentiana (named after Gentius, 6th century king of Illyria, who found the roots of the yellow gentian to have a healing effect on his malaria-stricken troops)
scopulorum: Grows on cliffs
Where To Buy
Not commercially available
Under intensive management by the New Zealand Department of Conservation. New populations have been established near Westport. At one time less than 40 plants were known from the wild in two small sites.
Fact Sheet prepared by P.J. de Lange (1 November 2004). Description based on Glenny (2004) (see also de Lange et al. 2010)
References and further reading
de Lange, P.J.; Heenan, P.B.; Norton, D.A.; Rolfe, J.R.; Sawyer, J.W.D. 2010: Threatened Plants of New Zealand. Christchurch, Canterbury University Press. 471pp.
Glenny, D. 2004: A revision of the genus Gentianella in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 42: 361-530.
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Gentianella scopulorum Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/gentianella-scopulorum/ (Date website was queried)