lance fern, whare ngārara
Polypodium cunninghamii Hook.; Polypodium dictyopteris Mett.; Dictyopteris lanceolata J.Sm.; Anarthropteris lanceolata (Hook. f.) Pic.Serm.; Polypodium attenuatum sensu A.Rich.; Anarthropteris dictyopteris (Mett.) Copel.; Anarthropteris lanceolata (J.Sm.) L.B.Moore in Allan; Dictymia lanceolata J.Sm. ex Hook.f.
Vascular – Native
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 74
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley.
2012 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Endemic. New Zealand: North, South and Chatham Islands, widespread in the North Island except for the central volcanic plateau and adjacent axial ranges, common in the northern South Island to Greymouth and Banks Peninsula. On the Chatham Islands scarce, reaching its national southern limit at Canister Cove, Rangiauria (Pitt Island).
Coastal to montane but mostly in coastal and lowland areas. Loxogramme seems to be most abundant in regions where base rich rocks such as basalt, limestone and calcareous sandstones and mudstones are exposed, in these sites it often forms luxuriant carpets on shaded rock outcrops. However, Loxogramme is not tied to base rich rocks and is sometimes nearly as common on rhyolite and ignimbrite exposures. It is also a common low epiphyte on trees, especially in alluvial forest.
Epiphytic, rupestral or terricolous fern forming leafy patches over substratum, Rhizomes tufted, scaly, producing numerous creeping, proliferous roots; these producing new plants at intervals. Fronds undivided, subcoriaceous, 70-300 × 7-23 mm, adaxially dark green to bright green above, abaxially paler, narrowly elliptic (rarely broadly so to almost rhomboidal), tapering to an acute apex, base narrowly cuneate extending as an indistinct stipe wing; midrib prominent, veins inconspicuous, reticulate. Sori oval, prominent, abaxially sunken, thereby forming a prominent bulge on the adaxial laminal surface, in one row either side of midrib set away from pinna margins, indusia absent. Spores orange-brown.
Easily recognised by the proliferous roots, such that this species usually covers much of the surrounding substratum in a mass of simple, subcoriaceous, dark green to bright green fronds. The prominent, oval, abaxially sunken sori are also characteristic of this species.
Not applicable - spore producing
Not applicable - spore producing
Minute spores are wind dispersed (Thorsen et al., 2009).
Although it can be cultivated Loxogramme is often difficult to maintain. Its does best in shaded, permanently damp (but not waterlogged) conditions, planted in a rich, free draining soil enriched with lime and humus.
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (13 January 2012). Description adapted from Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth (2000)
References and further reading
Brownsey, P.J.; Smith-Dodsworth, J.C. 2000: New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants. Auckland, David Bateman
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 2009 Vol. 11 No. 4 pp. 285-309
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Loxogramme dictyopteris Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/loxogramme-dictyopteris/ (Date website was queried)