ongaonga, tree nettle
Vascular – Native
Trees & Shrubs - Dicotyledons
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 48
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley.
2012 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Jagged-leaved, stinging, large shrub to 3 m tall, sometimes forming extensive thickets, bearing pairs of thin sharply toothed pointed leaves on long stems. Young parts covered in white needles that inject a painful toxin. Flowers and fruit tiny, in short spikes at base of leaves.
Endemic. Found throughout NZ in North and South Islands reaching Otago as its southern limit.
Common in the fringes of bushland. Mainly found in coastal and lowland forest margins and shrublands.
The shrub stands up to 2 m tall with a base up to 12 cm diameter. Its leaves are pale green, 8-12 x 3-5 cm that are borne on petioles up to 5 cm long.
None, although other indigenous Urtica species may be confused with U. ferox when it is a juvenile.
November - March
December - May
urtica: From the Latin verb urere which means “to burn”
ferox: From the Latin ferox ‘fierce’, usually referring to very spiny plants
The tree nettle is one of New Zealand’s most poisonous native plants. Standing about two metres tall, its coarsely toothed leaves have numerous white stinging hairs (trichomes), up to 6 mm long, at the tip of each tooth as well as on young stalks and leaf veins. These are hollow cylinders with tapered points, which break after piercing the skin, injecting toxins into the tissues, giving rise to pain and a rash. There have been cases of dogs and horses developing neurological problems, with respiratory distress and convulsions within minutes of exposure, often dying within hours, although some do recover. There are also reports of human poisoning in botanical references or the press. Connor, in his book, ‘The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand’, mentions a group of trampers who developed loss of coordination for three days after being stung. In another instance, a typist developed tingling numbness in the hand after grasping a nettle bush, preventing her from typing for five days. There are also reports of severe headaches, blurred vision and extreme fatigue. A fatal poisoning was described in 1961, when a young man died of paralysis and respiratory problems several hours after walking through a patch of tree nettles. Click on this link for more information about Poisonous native plants.
Fact sheet prepared by P.J. de Lange for NZPCN (1 June 2013)
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Urtica ferox Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/urtica-ferox/ (Date website was queried)