Bird Orchid, Ant Orchid
Simpliglottis valida (D.L.Jones) Szlach.
Vascular – Native
2n = 40
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Non-resident Native – Vagrant | Qualifiers: SO
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Non-resident Native – Vagrant | Qualifiers: SO
2009 | Non-resident Native – Vagrant | Qualifiers: SO
2004 | Non-resident Native – Vagrant
Indigenous, known in the North Island from Iwitahi Forest, and in the South Island from Richmond Forest, Hanmer Springs and Fiordland
In New Zealand known from old plantation forests at Iwitahi and Hanmer in stands dominated by Pinus nigra Arnold where it has been found in dense colonies amongst drifts of semi-rotted pine needles. Also recorded from the Richmond Range and Fiordland National park where it was found growing mossy logs and leaf litter within mixed beech (Nothofagus) forest.
Terrestrial orchid forming diffuse to dense leaf patches in shaded forests amongst leaf litter and amongst mosses. Flowering plants 40-100 mm tall. Leaves petiolate, 20-50(-100) x 9-30 mm, dark green above, paler beneath, broadly elliptic, margin entire. Flower solitary, greenish-purple to purple-brown; dorsal sepal 19-25 mm long, erect, incurved, broadly obovate-spathulate; lateral sepals 16-22 mm long, erect in basal 1/2 then recurved, divergent or parallel, broadest near the base, tapering to apex; petals 16-20 mm long, incurved or weakly divergent, asymmetrically ovate-lanceolate. Labellum on short claw, 13-16 mm long, broadly ovate-cordate; calli black, glossy, in central proximal 2/3 of lamina; main central gland stalked, erect and curved forwards, flanke dby 1-3(-4) pairs of calli (sometimes sparse present or absent), the basal ones stalked, others sessile, apical gland sessile. Column widely winged in upper half, wing as = to or > than anther. Capsule rarely produced in New Zealand plants unless hand fertilised, ellipsoid 10-20 mm long, held well above plant on greatly elongated peduncle.
Manaaki Whenua Online Interactive Key
Chiloglottis cornuta is somewhat similar but is a much smaller plant with green flowers. The labellum of that species is strongly deltoid. Unlike S. valida which is strictly insect-pollinated, and whose pollination vector is apparently absent in New Zealand, C. cornuta is predominantly selfing, so it freely produces capsules. Both species may be found growing together.
October - December
January-February (rarely seen in New Zealand populations)
Easily grown in a cool, moist, deep, well drained, gritty soil, mulched with well rotted pine needles and bark. Does better in dappled light than full sun. An attractive species which flowers readily in cultivation.
Plant collectors and logging of plantation forestry pose the major threats to this species. In both cases neither threat is major because the few accessible sites are well guarded by members of the New Zealand Native Orchid Group. This species does not readily set seed in New Zealand because its insect-pollination vector is apparently absent. However, occasional capsules are formed, and people have hand-pollinated some plants at Iwitahi. Nevertheless the bulk of the wild populations are clonal and the lack of sexual reproductive is the main threat, and also the main reason why it is listed as a vagrant.
Recently (Miller & Clements 2014) have shown that the segregate genera Myrmechila and Simpliglottis proposed by Szlachekto (2001) and Jones & Clements (2005) should be reduced to synonymy within Chiloglottis. That treatment is followed here.
Fact Sheet prepared fro NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (10 April 2007). Description based on Jones (1991) supplemented with observations made on live plants.
References and further reading
Jones, D.L. 1991: New taxa of Australian Orchidaceae. Australian Orchid Research 2: 43
Jones, D.L.; Clements, M.A. 2005: Miscellaneous Nomenclatural Notes and Changes in Australian, New Guinea and New Zealand Orchidaceae. The Orchadian 15: 33-42.
Miller J.T.; Clements, M.A. 2014: Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Drakaeinae: Diurideae (Orchidaceae) based on DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region. Australian Systematic Botany 27: 3-22.
Szlachekto, D.L. 2001: Genera et Species Orchidalium 1. Polish Botanical Journal 46: 11-26.
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Chiloglottis valida Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/chiloglottis-valida/ (Date website was queried)