Pinus nigra subsp. nigra
Vascular – Exotic
Trees & Shrubs - Gymnosperms
Terrestrial. Mainly shrubland and grassland.
Wetland plant indicator status rating
FACU: Facultative Upland
Occasionally is a hydrophyte but usually occurs in uplands (non-wetlands).
Tall tree to 40 m with open-branching habit. The dark brown bark is fissured and forms scaly plates. The needles held in pairs and up to 19 cm long, are stiff, pointed, and grooved on the opposing sides of the pair. Male and female flowers arise in clusters on the branch tips in late spring. Mature female cones arise singly or in whorls of two to four, 8 by 3 cm.
Long dark green needles held in pairs, small cones that are shed annually. No spikes on cone scales. Subsp. laricio has less dense foliage and more flexible leaves than subsp nigra, but the two subspecies can be difficult to distinguish.
Seeds short-lived in soil bank; wind dispersed (Atkinson 1997). Requires low soil fertility (Atkinson 1997).
Pyrenees to the Balkan Peninsula and Crimea - introduced from various parts of its range.
Reason for introduction
Tolerant of smoke and air pollution (Salmon 2000).
The National Wilding Conifer Control Programme team at Biosecurity New Zealand, a branch of Ministry for Primary Industries, has produced this wilding conifer quick ID guide.