Vascular – Exotic
Dicotyledonous Trees & Shrubs
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
Terrestrial. A coastal and lowland plant (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995). The plant grows in low fertility sites (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995). A plant of low forest, scrub and forest margin and shrubland (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995).
Large spreading shrub or small tree. Shoots densely hairy, somewhat angular. Leaves terete, simple, 20~60 x .7~1mm, glabrous except when very young, rigid and spiny. Flowers few, in fascicles of less than 10; peduncles 0 or very short, densely hairy. Pedicels 3~4mm long, densely hairy to glabrate. Perianth white, glabrous, = pedicels. Ovary shortly stipitate or sessile; style glabrous; stigma cone slightly oblique. Fruit 2~3 x 1.4~2.5cm, mostly very corrugated; beak very short. Seed 15~25 x 6~12mm (incl. wing), black; wing extending down one side. (- Webb et. al., 1988)
Large, prickly, spreading shrub or small tree. shoots densely hairy, older plant without hair. Leaves circular in cross section. Large seed capsule beaked and woody with a seed winged on one margin. Flowers June-November. Can be confused with downy hakea - note the downy hakea plant is covered in hair (DoC, 1998)
June, July, August, September, October, November
Tasmania, E Australia
Reason For Introduction
Life Cycle Comments
Perennial. Germination of seeds is high on burnt sites (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995). Seeds are released from trees and either germinate or decay (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995). The plant does not establish below its own canopy (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995).
Seed production is abundant, and seed remain viable on trees (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995).
Seed is dispersed by gravity and wind (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995).
The plant is slightly tolerant of shade and frost; highly tolerant to drought and intolerant to poor drainage (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995). Resprouting does not occur from the base, but once toppled, can revert to vertical shoot growth at ends of branches (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995). Adult plants are killed by fire, but releases seed (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995). Requires low soil fertility (Atkinson 1997).