tailed-seeded rush, Canada rush
Vascular – Exotic
Rushes & Allied Plants
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
Stiffly upright leafy rush to 90 cm tall, leaves round with internal cross walls (feels like clicks if you hold base of leaf between finger and thumb and slide up), plant green with branched flowerheads made up of many clusters of 5 to 20 pale brown flowers/capsules (fruit).
Common in Westland, also recorded from Canterbury and once from the Central Volcanic Plateau of the North Island.
Swamps, wet pasture, gravels and drains.
Wetland plant indicator status rating
Information derived from the revised national wetland plant list prepared to assist councils in delineating and monitoring wetlands (Clarkson et al., 2021 Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research Contract Report LC3975 for Hawke’s Bay Regional Council). The national plant list categorises plants by the extent to which they are found in wetlands and not ‘drylands’. The indicator status ratings are OBL (obligate wetland), FACW (facultative wetland), FAC (facultative), FACU (facultative upland), and UPL (obligate upland).
OBL: Obligate Wetland
Almost always is a hydrophyte, rarely in uplands (non-wetlands).
Densely erect tufted perennial. Stems 15-90 cm high, with several cauline leaves, distinctly septate internally just below inflorescence. Leaves terete transversely septate. Inflorescence variable, (2) 4-12 (18) cm long, with 5-12-flowered clusters at ends of branches and in branch forks. Tepals 3.5-4 mm long, ± equal, very narrow, rigid, acuminate. Stamens 3. Capsules 3-4.5 mm long, = or slightly > tepals, narrow to a short beak, red-brown. Seeds distinctly tailed.
Similar to other tubular septate leaved rushes, but only J. canadensis and J. acuminatus have septate stems beneath the inflorescence. J. acuminatus does not have tailed seeds, has smaller capsules and is usually reddish tinged not bright green.
Seed dispersed by animals, water or contaminated machinery.
Reason for introduction
Unknown, seed or soil contaminant.
Not controlled in New Zealand.
juncus: From the Latin jungere ‘to tie or bind’, the stems of some species being used to make cord (Johnson and Smith)
canadensis: Of Canada
Notes on taxonomy
Subgenus Juncus, Section Ozophyllum (Septati) Kirschner (2002: Juncaceae 2)
Factsheet prepared by Paul Champion and Deborah Hofstra (NIWA). Features description from Healy and Edgar (1980).
References and further reading
Healy, A.J.; Edgar, E. (1980). Flora of New Zealand, Volume III. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous and Spathaceous Monocotyledons. Government Printer, Wellington. 220pp.
Johnson PN, Brooke PA (1989). Wetland plants in New Zealand. DSIR Field Guide, DSIR Publishing, Wellington. 319pp.
Johnson, A. T. and Smith, H. A (1986). Plant Names Simplified: Their pronunciation, derivation and meaning. Landsman Bookshop Ltd: Buckenhill, UK.
Champion et al (2012). Freshwater Pests of New Zealand. NIWA publication. http://www.niwa.co.nz/freshwater-and-estuaries/management-tools/identification-guides-and-fact-sheets/freshwater-pest-species
Kirschner, J. (compiler) (2002). Juncaceae 2: Juncus subg. Juncus, Species Plantarum: Flora of the World Part 7: 1-336.
Healy, A.J. (1982). Identification of weeds and clovers. New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Publication. Editorial Services Limited, Featherston. 299pp.