South American rush
Vascular – Exotic
Rushes & Allied Plants
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
Upright leafy rush to 90 cm tall, leaves round with internal cross walls (feels like clicks if you hold base of leaf between finger and thumb and slide up), plant with branched flowerheads made up of many heads of 4 to 10 reddish brown flowers/capsules (fruit).
Common throughout the North Island and northern South Island, usually lowland.
Wetland plant indicator status rating
FACW: Facultative Wetland
Usually is a hydrophyte but occasionally found in uplands (non-wetlands).
Loosely or densely tufted perennial, bronze or occasionally red-purple at base. Stems 15-90 cm high, without internal transverse septa below inflorescence. Leaves terete or ± compressed, transversely-septate with septa usually evident externally. Inflorescence 6-24 cm long, very variable, open, much-branched, with 3-8-flowered clusters at ends of branches. Tepals 3-3.5 mm long, all ± equal, broad, acute. Stamens 6. Capsule 2.5-3.5 mm long, < to ± = tepals, broad, depressed at top, minutely mucronate, reddish-brown.
Similar to other tubular septate leaved rushes, but is taller and stouter than most other species (except J. acutiflorus) and has flat topped casules with a mucronate tip.
Spring to early summer
Summer to autumn
Seed dispersed by animals, water or contaminated machinery.
Reason for introduction
Unknown, seed or soil contaminant.
Not controlled in New Zealand.
juncus: From the Latin jungere ‘to tie or bind’, the stems of some species being used to make cord (Johnson and Smith)
Notes on taxonomy
Subgenus Juncus, Section Ozophyllum (Septati) Kirschner (2002: Juncaceae 2)
Factsheet prepared by Paul Champion and Deborah Hofstra (NIWA). Features description from Healy and Edgar (1980).
References and further reading
Healy, A.J.; Edgar, E. (1980). Flora of New Zealand, Volume III. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous and Spathaceous Monocotyledons. Government Printer, Wellington. 220pp.
Johnson PN, Brooke PA (1989). Wetland plants in New Zealand. DSIR Field Guide, DSIR Publishing, Wellington. 319pp.
Johnson, A. T. and Smith, H. A (1986). Plant Names Simplified: Their pronunciation, derivation and meaning. Landsman Bookshop Ltd: Buckenhill, UK.
Champion et al (2012). Freshwater Pests of New Zealand. NIWA publication. http://www.niwa.co.nz/freshwater-and-estuaries/management-tools/identification-guides-and-fact-sheets/freshwater-pest-species
Healy, A.J. (1982). Identification of weeds and clovers. New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Publication. Editorial Services Limited, Featherston. 299pp.
Kirschner, J. (compiler) (2002). Juncaceae 2: Juncus subg. Juncus, Species Plantarum: Flora of the World Part 7: 1-336.