mountain kiokio, Dunedin-Cass blechnum
Lomaria procera var. tegmentosa Hombr.; Blechnum montanum T.C.Chambers et P.A.Farrant
Vascular – Native
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 56
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Endemic. North, South, Chatham, Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell Islands from Mt Pirongia south.
Wetland plant indicator status rating
Information derived from the revised national wetland plant list prepared to assist councils in delineating and monitoring wetlands (Clarkson et al., 2021 Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research Contract Report LC3975 for Hawke’s Bay Regional Council). The national plant list categorises plants by the extent to which they are found in wetlands and not ‘drylands’. The indicator status ratings are OBL (obligate wetland), FACW (facultative wetland), FAC (facultative), FACU (facultative upland), and UPL (obligate upland).
FACU: Facultative Upland
Occasionally is a hydrophyte but usually occurs in uplands (non-wetlands).
Rhizome short creeping; scales to 12 × 3 mm, linear to lanceolate, acuminate, light reddish brown, sometimes tending to be slightly bicolorous with a somewhat darker central region, entire to finely toothed. Fronds dimorphic, erect, 100-600 × 30-250 mm, widest at or below the middle of the lamina; sterile and fertile fronds similar in length. Stipes 70-450 mm (stipes of fertile fronds often longer than stipes of sterile fronds), slender, usually less than c.3 mm diameter, pale brown or pinkish brown, darkening at base, sometimes darker and blotchy (especially fertile fronds); stipes scaly; scales variable in size, 2-8 × 5-20 mm, but mostly small, appressed, linear, ovate or cordate, pale brown, brown, reddish brown, or “black spot”, entire or toothed, sometimes branched at base. Lamina ovate to narrowly deltoid, mid or dark olive green and shiny at maturity, 1-pinnate, 3-20 pairs pinnae. Rachis and costae pale pinkish brown, brown, or reddish brown (often paler for sterile fronds); with moderately dense scales and irregular branched hairs; scales 1-10 × 5-10 mm, mostly inconspicuous, linear, branched or stellate, sometimes appressed; peltate “black spot” scales (especially conspicuous on costae) usually 2-3 × c.1 mm, broadly lanceolate-ovate, with attenuate apices (twisted in dried specimens) and irregular marginal outgrowths, intermixed with pale linear (to 6 mm) and smaller pale dendritic scales. Sterile pinnae 25-140 × 10-20 mm, oblong to lanceolate, often falcate, apices acute to attenuate, usually acuminate and becoming increasingly acute towards the base of the lamina, truncate or rounded-cordate at rachis; shortly petiolate or sub-petiolate at base of lamina becoming basiscopically adnate and decurrent at apex; coriaceous; margins toothed and often markedly crenate; veins simple or once-furcate; small branched or stellate scales often extending on to surface of pinnae; basal pinnae as long as or slightly shorter than middle pinnae, rarely less than half their length, more deflexed, and with more obtuse to rounded apices, auricles and auriculate pinnae bases absent; terminal pinna more elongate. Fertile pinnae 40.0-160.0 × 2.5-5.0 mm, narrow, linear, acuminate, sessile or shortly petiolate at base of lamina, becoming basiscopically adnate and winged towards apex; sori covering underside other than apex; indusium brown, laciniate; spores 42-60 × 23-46 µm.
Parablechnum montanum is superficially similar to P. novae-zelandiae in growth habit. From Parablechnum novae-zelandiae P. montanum is distinguished by the narrowly deltoid fronds, absence of auricles, and the pinnae tend to be falcate and upward-pointing. It is more easily confused with P. procerum with which it often grows. Parablechnum montanum differs from P. procerum by bearing the characteristic “black-spot” scales on the abaxial costae, rachis, and stipe. The scales of P. procerum are mostly concolorous, shiny, dark reddish brown, rarely slightly bicolorous with paler margins (though never, ever furnished with a central “black spot”)
Not applicable - spore producing
Not applicable - spore producing
Easily grown from fresh spores and whole plants. transplants well and flourishes in most conditions, though does best when plants in a shaded site and a permanently moist, rich soil . Dislikes humidity and drought but once established is remarkably tolerant.
montanum: From the Latin mons ‘mountain’, meaning growing on mountains
Perrie et al. (2014) advocated for a broadened circumscription of Blechnaceae whereby a number of genera traditionally recognized as distinct from Blechnum were merged within it. However, this view has not met with universal acceptance (see Gasper et al. 2016) and does not seem to be followed worldwide (PPG 2016). From a New Zealand perspective the decision to merge Doodia in Blechnum, and rejection of Diploblechnum has not been universally accepted either e.g., Wilcox & Warden (2017), and as such it is considered appropriate to follow world opinion and accept the taxonomy of Gasper et al. (2016) and recommendations of the PPG (2016). See also the comments by Pyner (2017).
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (7 March 2012). Description adapted Chambers & Farrant (1998)
References and further reading
Chambers, T.C.; Farrant, P.A. 1998: The Blechnum procerum (“capense”) (Blechnaceae) complex in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36: 1-19.
Gasper, A.L.; de Oliveira Dittrich, V.A.; Smith A.R.; Salino, A. 2016: A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275: 191–227.
Perrie, L.R.; Wilson, R.K.; Shepherd, L.D.; Ohlsen, D.J.; Batty, E.L.; Brownsey, P.J.; Bayly, M.J. 2014: Molecular phylogenetics and generic taxonomy of Blechnaceae ferns. Taxon 63(4): 745-758.
PPG 1: The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group 2016: A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54: 563-603.
Pyner, T. 2017: A new classification of Blechnum. British Pteridological Society. https://ebps.org.uk/new-classification-blechnum/
Wilcox, M.; Warden, J. 2017: Botany of Hillsborough coast bush reserves, Manukau Harbour, Auckland. Auckland Botanical Society Journal 72: 32-46.
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Parablechnum montanum Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/parablechnum-montanum/ (Date website was queried)