Doodia caudata Baker; Doodia caudata var. squarrosa (Colenso) C.Chr.; Blechnum zeelandicum Christenh.
Vascular – Native
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 128
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | At Risk – Naturally Uncommon | Qualifiers: DP, Sp
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | At Risk – Naturally Uncommon | Qualifiers: Sp
2009 | At Risk – Naturally Uncommon
2004 | Gradual Decline
Endemic. Kermadec Islands (Macauley Island). New Zealand: North Island from Northland to Wellington.
Coastal and lowland alluvial forest, river banks (often in the flood zone), near water falls and in geothermal areas, usually in dappled light or sunny situations. Appears to show a strong preference for base-rich substrates such as basalt, limestone, and the apatite-rich facies of greywacke.
Tufted fern arising from shortly erect rhizomes. Stipes 50-150(-200) mm long, along with rachises clad in sparse, brown, caducous scales otherwise glabrous. Fronds dimorphic, the sterile ones prostrate and smaller than the erect, fertile ones. Fronds 14-450 x 15-80 mm, firmly fleshy, glabrescent, pink when young maturing green to dark green. Pinnae in 15-35 pairs, lower and middle pairs stalked, the others fused (adnate) to stipe. Fertile terminal pinna 15-155 mm (conspicuously longer than all other pinnules, up to 1/8 length of entire frond). Indusia linear.
Most likely to be confused with Doodia mollis whose fronds are also distinctly dimorphic. However the fronds of this species are distinctly hairy, pinnae are up to 20 pairs, and the terminal pinna is scarcely longer than the rest.
Not applicable - spore producing
Not applicable - spore producing
Easy from fresh spores. Very fast growing and an excellent pot plant. Does well in a variety of soils, light levels and moisture regimes but intolerant of weeds.
Occupying a range of habitats, several of which are vulnerable to the spread of aggressive weeds. Within Auckland City the species has virtually been eliminated by excessive plant collecting, a factor which also threatens it in the Wellington region. Populations within the geothermal fields of the Bay of Plenty are at serious risk from the spread of taller weed species, especially grasses, such as Indian doab (Cynodon dactylon).
doodia: Named for Samuel Doody, 17th century London apothecary and curator
squarrosa: Rough, with scale-like projections; from the Latin squarrosus; leaves and leaf stalks
Perrie et al. (2014) advocated for a broadened circumscription of Blechnaceae whereby a number of genera traditionally recognized as distinct from Blechnum were merged within it. However, this view has not met with universal acceptance (see Gasper et al. 2016) and does not seem to be followed worldwide (PPG 2016). From a New Zealand perspective the decision to merge Doodia in Blechnum, and rejection of Diploblechnum has not been universally accepted either e.g., Wilcox & Warden (2017), and as such it is considered appropriate to follow world opinion and accept the taxonomy of Gasper et al. (2016) and recommendations of the PPG (2016).
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (2 February 2005). Description adapted from Parris (1973) and Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth (2000)
References and further reading
Brownsey, P.J.; Smith-Dodsworth, J.C. 2000: New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants. Auckland, David Bateman
Gasper, A.L.; de Oliveira Dittrich, V.A.; Smith A.R.; Salino, A. 2016: A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275: 191–227.
Parris, B.S. 1973: The genus Doodia (Blechnaceae: Filicales) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 10: 585-610.
Perrie, L.R.; Wilson, R.K.; Shepherd, L.D.; Ohlsen, D.J.; Batty, E.L.; Brownsey, P.J.; Bayly, M.J. 2014: Molecular phylogenetics and generic taxonomy of Blechnaceae ferns. Taxon 63: 745-758.
PPG 1: The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group 2016: A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54: 563-603.
Wilcox, M.; Warden, J. 2017: Botany of Hillsborough coast bush reserves, Manukau Harbour, Auckland. Auckland Botanical Society Journal 72: 32-46.
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Doodia squarrosa Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/doodia-squarrosa/ (Date website was queried)