Vascular – Native
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than Composites
2n = 32
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley.
2012 | Non-resident Native – Coloniser | Qualifiers: SO
Previous conservation statuses
2009 | Non-resident Native – Coloniser | Qualifiers: SO
2004 | Non-resident Native – Coloniser
Indigenous. New Zealand: North Island Lakes Waiporohita and Rotokawau, (Karikari Peninsula), and Kai iwi lakes, Northland. Common in Australia
In New Zealand G. pedunculata is only known from two northern North Island lakes where it is an uncommon emergent in shallow water, and a common species of those lakes marginal turf communities
Erect, sparingly branched, perennial herb up to 450 mm tall; all parts except corolla densely covered in viscid indumentum of sessile, golden, globose glands and sparse glandular hairs. Stems lime-green or red-purple. Leaves sessile, 3-nerved, 8-18 x 3-10 mm, lime-green, ovate to lanceolate; margins widely toothed, leaf base amplexicaule. Flowers 1(-2) per leaf axis. Pedicels 10-12(-16) mm. Bracteoles 1-2(-3) mm, linear-falcate. Sepals 5, free, erect, narrowly lanceolate, 4-5 mm. Corolla white flushed yellow, with 12-14 longitudinal purple stripes; tube 6 mm, narrow, inner surface white, silky hairy; lobes 5, projecting forward, 1 mm long, upper lobe often shallowly 2-lobed. Anthers white, ovoid, 0.5 mm; filaments yellow, 2-3 mm, staminodes 2 or 0, filiform and minute. Style caducous 1.8-2.1 mm. Capsule 3-5 mm, broadly ovoid, exceeding calyx, septicidal to base.
A distinctive species whose sparingly branched, erect habit, extremely viscid indumentum, lime-green, unspotted leaves, and conspicuous pedicellate, sweetly scented flowers immediately distinguish it from the other three indigenous species.
November – March
December – May
Mucilaginous seeds are dispersed by water and possibly wind and attachment (Thorsen et al., 2009).
Easy from fresh seed and stem cuttings. Prone to slug and snail damage. Does best in sunny, permanently damp soil. The small inconspicuous flowers, while not overly attractive are very pleasantly scented.
Not threatened but still very uncommon in New Zealand. First discovered in New Zealand at Lake Waiporohita, Karikari Peninsula in November 1991 but it was not correctly identified until better material was collected in January 1996. Subsequently it has been discovered at Lake Rotokawau, also on the Karikari Peninsula and at the Kai iwi lakes. The seeds are probably dispersed by ducks and other dabbling water fowl.
gratiola: Little beauty
pedunculata: Flowers stalked
Where To Buy
Not commercially available.
Fact Sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange 23 May 2005. Description modified from de Lange (1997)
References and further reading
de Lange, P.J. 1997: Gratiola pedunculata (Scrophulariaceae): a new addition to the New Zealand flora. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 317-322
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Gratiola pedunculata Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/gratiola-pedunculata/ (Date website was queried)