Vascular – Native
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than Composites
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 34
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | At Risk – Declining | Qualifiers: CD, DP, RR
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | At Risk – Declining | Qualifiers: DP
2009 | At Risk – Declining | Qualifiers: DP
2004 | Gradual Decline
Endemic. North, South and Stewart Islands from the Pouto Peninsula south and mainly westerly in its distribution. Occurring locally throughout.
A coastal species of damp sand ground, dune slacks and swales, and along tidal river margins. It also grows on coastal sandstone bluffs in some parts of the country.
Low growing herb, mat forming. Stolons rather stout, usually creeping through sand, branched, up to approximately 40 cm. long. Leaves on stout, more or less flat, amplexicaul petioles up to 5 cm. long. Lamina rather diversely shaped (on same plant) oblong to ovate to sub-rhombic, cuneate to subcordate at base, subcoriaceous, grey-green, 7-12-(20) × 9-15 mm., subglabrous, coarsely crenate, sometimes lobed. Inflorescence up to 7 cm. long, flowers sessile. Staminate flower with filiform calyx-lobes, minute bracts; petals 2, about lanceolate, glabrous, more or less 2 mm. long; filaments obsolete. Pistillate flowers with triangular calyx-lobes more or less 6 mm. long; styles filiform, up to 5 mm. long. Drupes clavate to obconic, patent to pendulous, more or less apiculate, on elongated scapes, yellow to pale red, more or less 4-6 mm. long.
November - March
November - May
At risk from coastal development, wetland drainage and the spread of invasive weeds. Some populations have been destroyed by coastal erosion.
gunnera: Named after Bishop Gunner, a Swedish botanist
arenaria: Sand dweller
Description adapted by M. Ward from Allan (1961).
References and further reading
Allan, H.H. 1961: Flora of New Zealand. Volume I. Wellington, N.Z. pg. 251.