Hypolepis distans Hook.
Vascular – Native
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 56
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Not Threatened | Qualifiers: TO
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Indigenous. New Zealand: North, South (Marlborough, North-West Nelson and North Westland with one record from Banks Peninsula) and Chatham Islands. Also Australia (Tasmania and some Bass Strait Islands). Sparingly naturalised on Norfolk Island (de Lange et al. 2005)
Hiya distans is usually found in swampy areas, especially on peat, or in soils with a deep humus layer. In forest situations (or disturbed forest margins) it often colonises decomposing logs. Very occasionally it is found as a weed of garden centres and nurseries, plants often arising from the peat that is bought into these areas to use as potting mix.
Wetland plant indicator status rating
Information derived from the revised national wetland plant list prepared to assist councils in delineating and monitoring wetlands (Clarkson et al., 2021 Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research Contract Report LC3975 for Hawke’s Bay Regional Council). The national plant list categorises plants by the extent to which they are found in wetlands and not ‘drylands’. The indicator status ratings are OBL (obligate wetland), FACW (facultative wetland), FAC (facultative), FACU (facultative upland), and UPL (obligate upland).
Commonly occurs as either a hydrophyte or non-hydrophyte (non-wetlands).
Rhizome long-creeping, 1.0–2.25 mm diam., abundantly covered in dark red-brown hairs 2.0–3.5 mm long, giving rise to stipes at intervals of 30–70 mm. Stipes 50–500(–600) mm long, 0.75–1.25 mm diam., dark red-brown, bearing a few scattered red-brown hairs at base. Laminae narrowly elliptic to elliptic or ovate, (150–)250–600(–950) × 90–300(–400) mm, rather stiff and harsh to the touch, bipinnate at apex to almost tripinnate at base (truly tripinnate in largest specimens). Rachis dark red-brown becoming paler only at the very apex, bearing scattered pale brown hairs. Primary pinnae in 20–40 pairs (more in very large specimens), opposite or subopposite arising at c.90° to rachis, the longest at or below middle 50–200 × 17–60 mm; lowest pinnae (20–)40–120(–200) mm apart, middle pinnae (10–)20–50(–60) mm apart, narrowly ovate or triangular, midrib narrowly winged throughout; lowest pair orientated at 90° to plane of frond in largest specimens. Secondary pinnae sessile or shortly stalked, ovate to narrowly ovate, longest 8–30(–40) × 4–7(–10) mm, doubly serrate with 3–9 primary serrations on each side of longest secondary pinna (divided to the midrib in tripinnate forms); those on lower primary pinnae ± equal in length, only decreasing in size towards the very apex of each pinna. Veins reaching margin at a sinus (emarginate). Hairs virtually absent on upper surface of frond, a few scattered pale-brown non-glandular hairs on underside of costae and midribs. Sori in 2-8 pairs on longest secondary pinnae, marginal, terminating veins on sides of ultimate segments, protected by reflexed, incised membranous flaps. Spores dark brown, ± smooth.
Not Applicable - Spore Producing
Not Applicable - Spore Producing
Easily grown from fresh spores and by division of established plants. Should be planted in a humus rich (peat is ideal), damp soil. Does best in a warm sunny place but once established tolerant of a range of situations of moisture levels.
distans: Distant (widely spaced female flowers
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (8 November 2012). Description from Brownsey & Chinnock (1984).
References and further reading
Brownsey, P.J.; Chinnock, R.J. 1984: A Taxonomic revision of the New Zealand species of Hypolepis. New Zealand Journal of Botany 22: 43-80.
de Lange, P.J.; Gardner, R.O.; Sykes, W.R.; Crowcroft, G.M.; Cameron, E. K. Stalker, F.; Christian, M.L.; Braggins, J.E. 2005: Vascular flora of Norfolk Island: some additions and taxonomic notes. New Zealand Journal of Botany 43: 563-596.
Perrie, L.R.; Shepherd, L.D.; Brownsey, P.J. 2018: Hiya distans (Dennstaedtiaceae), a new combination for an Australasian fern previously classified in Hypolepis. New Zealand Journal of Botany 56. DOI: 10.1080/0028825X.2018.1526807
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Hiya distans Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/hiya-distans/ (Date website was queried)