Dracophyllum longifolium var. longifolium
Vascular – Native
Trees & Shrubs - Dicotyledons
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 26
Current conservation status
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley.
2012 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Erect grassy shrub with light grey bark and erect twigs bearing long narrow pointed leaves inhabiting the South Island and Subantarctic Islands. Leaves 4-14cm long by 1-4mm wide, widening to a sheath that encloses the stem which has a finely hairy margin (lens needed).
Endemic. New Zealand: South, Stewart, Auckland, and Campbell Islands
Widespread from sea level to the alpine zone growing in forest, woodland, shrubland and bogs on mountain and hill slopes, oncoastal cliffs and on bluffs.
Erect to spreading single–stemmed shrub or tree 1–12 m tall. Bark on old branches grey to blackish brown, finely to deeply fissured, young stems reddish brown. Leaves dimorphic. Juvenile leaves spirally arranged or crowded at tips of branches, erect to spreading; lamina sheath 9–20 × 5–11 mm, light green, shoulders tapering to truncate and margin ciliate in upper half; lamina 100.0–250.0 × 2.5–7.0 mm, linear–triangular to lanceolate; margins serrulate with 50–80 teeth per 10 mm. Adult leaves erect to spreading; lamina sheath 5–15 × 4–7 mm, light green, striate, shoulders rounded to auricled and margin membranous with the top half ciliate; lamina 40–232 × 1–6 mm, linear to linear–triangular, prominently striated; margins serrulate with 120–170 teeth per 10 mm; apex triquetrous. Inflorescence a terminal raceme on lateral branchlets, shorter than leaves, initially erect but drooping later, dense, 24–55 mm long, linear–oblong. Inflorescence bract over-topping flowers, subulate, 17.0–35.0 × 1.2–1.5 mm, scabrous at base of adaxial surface, margins serrulate. Flowers 5–18, pedicellate; flower bract caducous, equaling to longer than flower, 10–15 × 5–8 mm,broadly ovate, adaxial surface pubescent in upper third, margins ciliate; pedicel straight, 0.7–2.0 mm. Sepals 2.5–7.0 × 1.5–3.0 mm, ovate–lanceolate, equal to or longer than corolla tube, striate, surfaces glabrous with the top half sometimes pubescent on adaxial surface; margins ciliate. Co rolla white; corolla tube 4.0–5.0 × 2.5–3.5 mm; cylindrical, widened at mouth; corolla lobes reflexed, 1.5–2.0 × 1.5–2.5 mm, ovate to ovate–triangular, shorter than corolla tube, inflexed at apex; apices subacute; adaxial surface papillate. Stamens inserted on corolla tube in the upper third, filaments 0.3–0.5 mm long; anthers included, 0.8–1.0 mm long, oblong, light yellow. Ovary 1.3–2.0 × 1.3–2.0 mm obovate, apex round; nectary scales 1.2–1.5 × 0.8–1.0 mm, rectangular, apices irregularly toothed; style included, 0.7–1.3 mm long, glabrous; stigma capitate. Fruit pedicellate, 3.5–3.6 × 3.8–4.0 mm, obovoid, light brown, apex round, glabrous. Seeds 0.8–1.2 mm long, ovoid, light brown, testa slightly reticulate.
Dracophyllum longifolium var. longifolium is recognised by the very broad, long and flat juvenile leaves, stiff, narrow and erect adult leaves with wide, shouldered sheaths, flower bracts that fall early; sepals short and broad with long white cilia and the mouth of the corolla tube that is slightly widened. Dracophyllum longifolium var. longifolium is most similar to D. cockayneanum with which it is sympatric on the Auckland and Campbell Islands and from which it is distinguished by the glabrous juvenile and adult leaves. Dracophyllum longifolium var. longifolium has been erroneously reported from the North Island in the past by numerous botanists however, plants so referred are in fact D. filifolium a very different species. Despite the currently available names Dracophyllum longifolium var. longifolium has no close relationship to D. longifolium var. septentrionale (Venter 2009).
October – March
Throughout the year
Minute seeds are wind dispersed (Thorsen et al., 2009).
Difficult - should not be removed from the wild
dracophyllum: Dragon leaf, from its likeness to the dragon tree of the Canary Islands
longifolium: Long leaved
Where To Buy
Not commercially available.
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange 25 June 2012. Description adapted from Venter (2009).
References and further reading
Venter, S. 2009: A taxonomic revision of the genus Dracophyllum Labill. (Ericaceae). Unpublished Phd Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington.
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Dracophyllum longifolium var. longifolium Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/dracophyllum-longifolium-var-longifolium/ (Date website was queried)