Meringium bivalve (G. Forst.) Copel.; Sphaerocionium bivalve (G.Forst.) C.Presl; Trichomanes bivalve G.Forst.; Hymenophyllum pyriforme Bosch; Hymenophyllum spathulatum Colenso
Vascular – Native
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 44
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Not Threatened | Qualifiers: SO
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Indigenous. New Zealand: North, South, Stewart, Chatham and Auckland Islands. From Campbells Bay (Auckland) south, though scarce north of the Waikato. Also Australia (Queensland to New South Wales)
Coastal to montane forest. Either terrestrial or a low epiphyte on tree trunks and exposed roots.
Delicate, mat-forming terrestrial or low epiphytic fern. Rhizomes long-creeping, rather gracile, wiry, pliant, sparsely hairy; hairs dark brown, appressed. Frond pendulous in epiphytic plants otherwise with erect stipes and laminae lying horizontal. Stipes well spaced on rhizomes, 30-150(-180) mm long, slender, not-winged ± glabrous (sometimes with sparse hairs near base and apex); rachises narrowly winged throughout. Laminae 60-200 × 30-160 mm, light green, ± glabrous, broadly triangular to broadly ovate with apex deflexed, deeply 3-4-pinnate, primary pinnae often up-curved. Ultimate segments linear, 0.3-1.5 mm wide, obtuse, margins shallowly toothed. Sori numerous, terminating ultimate segments, slightly sunken in lamina, many on each primary pinna. Involucre round to ovoid, bilabiate, almost divided almost to base, 0.8-1.5 mm long, 0.5-1.5 mm wide; base cuneate, only slightly immersed; indusial flaps entire, smooth-edged; receptacle included or slightly exserted. Description adapted from Bostock & Spokes (1998) and Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth (2000).
Sterile plants are virtually impossible to distinguish from Hymenophyllum multifidum but when fertile this species is easily recognised by the much smaller sori which are held horizontally or slightly bent but never bent at 90 degrees to the plant of the frond as in H. multifidum. The fronds of H. bivalve are slightly larger than those of H. multifidum, brighter green, notably less prominently curled downwards, and the margins are more finely and less deeply toothed.
Minute spores are wind dispersed (Thorsen et al., 2009).
Difficult - should not be removed from the wild
hymenophyllum: Membranous leaf, from the Greek humen and phullon
Where to Buy
Not commercially available
Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (17 April 2011). Description adapted from Bostock & Spokes (1998) and Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth (2000).
References and further reading
Brownsey, P.J.; Smith-Dodsworth, J.C. 2000: New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants. Auckland, David Bateman
Bostock, P.D.; Spokes, T.M. 1998: Hymenophyllaceae: Flora of Australia 48: 116-148.
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Hymenophyllum bivalve Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/hymenophyllum-bivalve/ (Date website was queried)