Vascular – Native
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
2n = 44, (43), 44
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | Not Threatened
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | Not Threatened
2009 | Not Threatened
2004 | Not Threatened
Endemic. North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands. Exact distirbution unclear as this is a species complex
Lowland to subalpine (up to 1200 m a.s.l.) in a wide range of habitats from dense forest to restiad peat bogs. An extremely variable species which probably comprises several as yet unnamed entities. Until these are teased out the exact ecological preferences of P. montana s.s. are difficult to describe.
Terrestrial, tuberous, glabrous, spring to summer-green perennial herb, either solitary in forming small patches of 3-10 plants through vegetative extension. Plant at flowering 30-350 mm tall. Stem erect, smooth, dark green, bronze-green to reddish green, internodes
Manaaki Whenua Online Interactive Key
At least seven forms are currently known as P. montana, these are all unified by the slightly arched, broadly oblong, stout labellum whose apex is mostly subacute, constricted and conspicuously twisted to the right (when viewed from the front). The stigma also tends to be broadly to narrowly cordate (heart-shaped) and prominent, the lateral sepals rather shortly erect with the apices often twisted or recurved, and the leaves of flowering plants mostly linear-lanceolate. Some forms seem to grade into P. banksii A.Cunn or P. australis Hook.f. Further taxonomic study is needed.
September - December
November - March
Difficult - should not be removed from the wild. Basic orchid mix consists of 2 parts medium coarse sand, ideally clean river sand; 2 parts soil, humus or leaf-mould; 1 part weathered sawdust or rotting wood; 1 part granulated bark. For Pterostylis shade of 50% and pots kept evenly moist.
pterostylis: Winged column
montana: From the Latin mons ‘mountain’, meaning growing on mountains
Where To Buy
Not commercially available
The type is a unicate collected from Stewart Island. The description for that plant though adequate for its time now covers a wide range of entities and it is not clear to which of these the type now refers (there are at least two entities on Stewart Island). Here NZPCN offer a broad treatment for P. montana recognising that it is a species complex and that further work will undoubtedly recognise possibly as many as five species within the current circumscription of P. montana Hatch.
Fact Sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange 14 April 2007: Description adapted from Moore and Edgar (1970).
References and further reading
Moore, L.B.; Edgar, E. 1970: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. II. Government Printer, Wellington.
NZPCN Fact Sheet citation
Please cite as: de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of access): Pterostylis montana Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora/species/pterostylis-montana/ (Date website was queried)