A coastal wetland, with specialized salt tolerant plants (halophytes).
A juvenile tree that has reached the stage of 1 or 2 main stems but is still in the shrub layer.
A plant lacking chlorophyll and living on dead organic matter.
Lacking chlorophyll and living on dead organic matter.
The fleshy, often highly coloured outer layer of the seed coat in some species, e.g., titoki (Alectryon excelsus).
A group of grass-like or rush-like herbaceous plants belonging to the family Cyperaceae. Many species are found in wetlands some are forest floor plants. Leaves are usually angular. Hence the saying “rushes are round and sedges have edges”.
A newly germinated plant.
Able to sustain itself, or replace itself, independently of management i.e. regenerate naturally.
Natural tree death in a crowded, even-aged forest or shrubland.
Partial leaflessness in winter, and greater than 50% leaves lost by the beginning of spring flush.
A portion of an organ that surrounds (at least partly) another organ (e.g., the tubular envelope enclosing the stem in grasses and sedges).
The flattened usually circular capsule – compared with the narrow, elongated fruit (silique) – containing the seed/seeds. A term used almost exclusively for plants within the cabbage family (Brassicaceae).
A capsule, usually 2-celled, with 2 valves falling away from a frame (replum) bearing.
The space or recess between lobes; in hebes a gap between the margins of two leaves of an opposite pair that may be present in the bud before the pair of leaves separate.
A cluster of two or more sporangia on the margin or underside of the lamina of a fern, sometimes protected by an indusium.
Almost spherical but elliptic in cross section.
Arranged in a spike.
Collection of individual grass florets borne at the end of the smallest branch of the inflorescence.
Structure in which spores are produced.
A single-celled reproductive unit similar in function to that of the seed in a flowering plant.
The spore producing plant in ferns that is usually the visible part.
The male reproductive organ of a flower where pollen is produced. Consists of an anther and its stalk.
Where water lies above the soil surface for much of the year.
Female part of the flower that is receptive to pollen, usually found at or near the tip (apical end) of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil.
A leaf with stipules.
A stem which creeps along the ground, or even underground.
A fine line or groove.
Fine lines or grooves.
A prefix meaning under, somewhat or almost.
Slightly rounded in outline.
The surface upon which an orchid grows.
Immediately beneath, occupying a position immediately beneath a structure, i.e., flower subtended by bract.
Progressive replacement of one species or plant community type by another in an ecosystem.
Referring to species, plant communities or habitats that tend to be progressively replaced by another.
Used in New Zealand to indicate herbs or sub-shrubs that die down to a root stock or rhizomatous network.
Returning to a revegetation site and creating gaps, or filling existing gaps, with different plants of plants, usually later successional plants which may not have survived being planted in the first phases of the project.
Water present above the substrate or soil surface.
Regular survey for pests inside operational and managed areas e.g. nurseries, standout areas on parks.
Collection of observations on the spatial distribution or presence or absence of species using standardised procedures.
sustainable land management
The use of farming practices which are sustainable both financially and environmentally including management of nutrient runoff, waste disposal or stock effluent, reducing impacts of nutrients on waterways, preventing erosion and soil loss, and protecting native forest and wetland habitats from stock damage.
Low land that is seasonally flooded; has more woody plants than a marsh and better drainage than a bog. They are more fertile and less acidic than bogs because inflowing water brings silt, clay and organic matter. Typical swamp plants include raupo, purei and harakeke (flax). Zonation and succession often leads through manuka to kahikatea swamp forest as soil builds up and drainage improves.
An organism that has an association with organisms of another species whereby the metabolic dependence of the two associates is mutual.
Occupying the same geographical region.
A botanical name that also applies to the same taxon.
The study of taxonomy, phylogenetics, and taxagenetics.
The relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other (see also symbiosis).
Very slightly, but persistently, hairy.
The male, pollen bearing organ of a flower.
Shaped like the head of an arrow; narrow and pointed but gradually enlarged at base into two straight lobes directed downwards; may refer only to the base of a leaf with such lobes; cf. hastate.
Finely serrate, i.e., finely toothed with asymmetrical teeth pointing forward; like the cutting edge of a saw.
A fruit which splits when dry, from the Greek skhizein ‘split’ and karpos ‘fruit’.
Plural of schizocarp, a fruit which splits when dry, from the Greek skhizein ‘split’ and karpos ‘fruit’.