Campbell Island bittercress
Cardamine hirsuta var. subcarnosa Hook.f.; Cardamine glacialis var. subcarnosa (Hook.f.) Schulz
Vascular – Native
Herbs - Dicotyledons other than Composites
The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.
Current conservation status
The threat classification status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2017 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) – more information about this can be found on the NZTCS website This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2012 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: By Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, John W. Barkla, Shannel P. Courtney, Paul D. Champion, Leon R. Perrie, Sarah M. Beadel, Kerry A. Ford, Ilse Breitwieser, Ines Schönberger, Rowan Hindmarsh-Walls, Peter B. Heenan and Kate Ladley. Please note, threat classifications are often suggested by authors when publications fall between NZTCS assessment periods – a suggested threat classification status has not been assessed by the NZTCS panel.
2017 | At Risk – Naturally Uncommon | Qualifiers: IE, OL
Previous conservation statuses
2012 | At Risk – Naturally Uncommon | Qualifiers: IE, OL
2009 | At Risk – Naturally Uncommon | Qualifiers: RR, OL
2004 | Range Restricted
Endemic. Campbell Island
Inhabiting damp places on scree, peat, grassland, and rock crevices. Said to be most common in herbfields, tall Marsippospermum rushlands, and fellfields of the summit tundra zone
Perennial herb, caespitose, forming an open rosette. Leaves pinnate, up to 100(–140) mm long, green, subcoriaceous, lamina and petiole margins sparsely ciliate, glabrate, or occasionally glabrous; petiole 20–60 mm long, 1.5–6.0 mm wide, winged and sheathing at base. Leaflets 5–7, usually in pairs although proximal leaflets occ. alternate, usually not overlapping except occasionally the uppermost pair and the terminal, hydathodes inconspicuous to prominent, margin entire, apex obtuse to rounded, base cuneate, obtuse or ± truncate; terminal leaflet lamina 5–25 × 5–20 mm, orbicular to broadly elliptic, with inconspicuous lateral lobes or shallowly toothed; lateral leaflet lamina 3–22 × 2.5–12 mm, broadly elliptic, elliptic to obovate, shallowly toothed or entire; petiolules up to 10 mm long, although sometimes ± absent. Cauline leaves subtending pedicels, although sometimes absent on upper pedicels; lower leaves similar to rosette leaves, but with fewer and narrower leaflets, becoming smaller in all parts; upper leaves 1.7–6.5 × 0.3–0.9 mm, increasingly linear, simple. Inflorescence 50–150(–300) mm long, 1.2–1.6 mm diam. at base, glabrous, usually elongating after flowering, upright to ascending, racemose, flowers distant in upper half. Pedicels 2.0–12 mm long, 0.5–0.8 mm diam, erecto-patent to spreading. Sepals 1.3–2.4 × 0.5–1.2 mm, oblong to elliptic, glabrous, green or purple, margin white and membranous, apex obtuse to rounded, base truncate. Petals 2.2–4.7 × 0.6–1.3 mm, white, pink or purple, usually purple veined, limb obovate; apex obtuse to rounded; base cuneate to attenuate, tapering to a ± indistinct claw, claw up to 0.5 mm long. Filaments 6, 1.5–2.5 mm long; anthers 0.3–0.4 mm long. Ovary 3.2–3.5 mm long, 0.5–0.7 mm diam., terete, glabrous; stigma 0.3–0.5 mm diam. Siliques 9–20 × 0.9–1.3 mm, not crowded, erecto-patent to spreading, beak 1.0–1.4 mm long; replum 0.3–0.4 mm wide; septum with a weak central vein or vein absent. Seeds 0.8–1.4 mm long, 0.5–0.9 mm wide, 0.3–0.5 mm thick, rounded or oblong, red-brown.
Distinguished from the Auckland Islands endemic Cardamine latior by longer leaves with fewer leaflets that do not overlap, less prominent leaf margin and axil hydathodes, longer inflorescences, sub-erect to spreading. narrower rather than erect and broader siliques, and by the septum which lacks a well defined central vein.
November – December
December - February
Seeds are dispersed by ballistic projection, water and attachment (Thorsen et al., 2009).
Not known from cultivation. Probably easy but likely to suffer in high temperatures and humidity.
Rated as Naturally Uncommon because this species is naturally confined to a restricted geographic area of <1000 km²
cardamine: From the Greek name kárdamon, referring to an Indian spice
Where To Buy
Not commercially available.
Description from Heenan (2008)
References and further reading
Heenan, P.B. (2008). New Zealand Journal of Botany. 46(4): 559–566
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 2009 Vol. 11 No. 4 pp. 285-309